After studying this chapter, students should be able to:
1. Describe forces that act as stimulants to change.
2. Summarize sources of individual and organizational resistance to change. 3. Describe Lewin’s three-step change model.
4. Explain the values underlying most OD efforts
5. Identify properties of innovative organizations.
6. List characteristics of a learning organization.
7. Define knowledge management and explain its importance.
8. Describe potential sources of stress.
9. Explain individual difference variables that moderate the stress-outcome relationship.
The need for change has been implied throughout this text. “A casual reflection on change should indicate that it encompasses almost all our concepts in the organizational behavior literature. Think about leadership, motivation, organizational environment, and roles. It is impossible to think about these and other concepts without inquiring about change.” If environments were perfectly static, if employees’ skills and abilities were always up to date and incapable of deteriorating, and if tomorrow were always exactly the same as today, organizational change would have little or no relevance to managers. The real world, however, is turbulent, requiring organizations and their members to undergo dynamic change if they are to perform at competitive levels. Managers are the primary change agents in most organizations. By the decisions they make and their role-modeling behaviors, they shape the organization’s change culture. For instance, management decisions related to structural design, cultural factors, and human resource policies largely determine the level of innovation within the organization. Similarly, management decisions, policies, and practices will determine the degree to which the organization learns and adapts to changing environmental factors. We found that the existence of work stress, in and of itself, need not imply lower performance. The evidence indicates that stress can be either a positive or negative influence on employee performance. For many people, low to moderate amounts of stress enable them to perform their jobs better by increasing their work intensity, alertness, and ability to react. However, a high level of stress, or even a moderate amount sustained over a long period of time, eventually takes its toll and performance declines. The impact of stress on satisfaction is far more straightforward. Job-related tension tends to decrease general job satisfaction. Even though low to moderate levels of stress may improve job performance, employees find stress dissatisfying.
At the end of each chapter of this instructor’s manual, you will find suggested exercises and ideas for researching the WWW on OB topics. The exercises “Exploring OB Topics on the Web” are set up so that you can simply photocopy the pages, distribute them to your class, and make assignments accordingly. You may want to assign the exercises as an out-of-class activity, or as lab activities with your class. Within the lecture notes the graphic will note that there is a WWW activity to support this material.
The chapter opens introducing Kun-Hee Lee, Samsung’s chairman. Lee challenged his staff to turn Samsung into a truly innovative company, applying cutting-edge technology. Lee achieved his goal of organizational change. Today Samsung is a leader in a number of innovative products including a combined cell phone and hand-held device, flat-screen TV’s, and ultra-thin laptops.
|Forces for Change |Notes: | |1. Organizations face a dynamic and changing...