Organelles and Functions

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Plant Cell Organelles Description

OrganelleDescription
NucleusThe nucleus contains all of the genetic make-up of the cell and is the control center of the cell NucleolusThe nucleolus is inside the nucleus and has the job of producing ribosomes CytosolContains all of the cell’s organelles

CentrosomeProduces Microtubules, helps in cell division
MicrotubulesThe migration of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis takes place on microtubules that make up the spindle fibers Golgi ApparatusHas the job of “packaging” the organelles to be sent throughout the cell LysosomeLysosomes are rare in plant cells but have the job of cleaning up in the cell PeroxisomeConvert fatty acids into sugar and assist the chloroplast in photorespiration Secretory VesiclePackages hormones, neurotransmitters, etc. then are transported to the cell surface for release Cell MembraneHas a phospholipid bilayer with hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails, the membrane also contains protein, making it semi-permeable MitochondrionProvide the energy the cell needs to move, divide, contract, etc. They are the power house of the cell. VacuoleVery large in plant cells. Store nutrients and waste products, help increase size of cell during growth, and act like lysosomes. Cell WallMade up of polysaccharides (cellulose in higher plant cells). Serves as the protective barrier. ChloroplastContain the chlorophyll responsible for the green color. Also in charge of photosynthesis. Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumServe different functions based on the specific type of cell including: lipid and steroid hormone synthesis and control the calcium release in muscle cell contraction. Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumTransport ribosomes throughout the cell (the ribosomes contain protein) RibosomesPackets of RNA and protein and are the site of protein synthesis MicrofilamentsThese filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton. CytoskeletonHelps maintain the...
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