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Imperata cylindrica as an Antibacterial Agent for Escherichia coli

INTRODUCTION

a. Background of the Study
We all know that bacteria are everywhere. Bacteria are microscopic organisms whose single cells have neither a membrane-enclosed nucleus nor other membrane-enclosed organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts. One example of bacteria is E .coli is a bacterium that is commonly found in the gut endotherms. E. coli and related bacteria constitute about 0.1% of gut flora, and fecal-oral transmission is the major route through which pathogenic strains of the bacterium cause disease. Cells are able to survive outside the body for a limited amount of time, which makes them ideal indicator organisms to test environmental samples for fecal contamination. The bacterium can also be grown easily and inexpensively in a laboratory setting, and has been intensively investigated for over 60 years. E. coli is the most widely studied prokaryotic model organism, and an important species in the fields of biotechnology and microbiology, where it has served as the host organism for the majority of work with recombinant DNA.E. coli have also several beneficial functions, such as the production of vitamin K2. They also prevent harmful bacteria, also known as pathogenic bacteria. On the other side, most E. coli strains pose no harm to human health, except for serotype O157:H7, which can cause food poisoning in humans and can become a serious infection. On the past years, Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass) had been one of the major problems of farmers. Imperata cylindrica is mostly found in a sub-humid and humid grassland, open woodland, and cultivated areas. It produces extensive rhizomes which allow it to spread and dominate a wide range of disturbed sites. Imperata cylindrica forms a dense mat and produces plenty of leaves that make it nearly impossible for other plants to coexist. The species puts out extensive rhizomes that give rise to 3-10' long spreading stems and the leaf blade bunches that grow out of the stems. The leaf blades begin at ground level and leaves typically range from 1-4 feet in length. Blades range from 1/2-3/4 inches in width, possess finely serrate sharp margins, a white, off-center mid-vein, and are hairy at the base. The finely serrate leaf margins contribute to the undesirable forage qualities of this grass. Young leaves are light green while older leaves are orange-brown to brown in color. The ligules (membranous or hairy appendages at the junction between sheath and blade) are brown and papery .This grass produces long, fluffy-white panicles (seedheads). It greatly affects mat and produces plenty of leaves that make it nearly impossible for other plants to coexist. It greatly affects our agricultural crops. Imperata cylindrica can easily attract fire. Burning them encourage new shoots. That’s why farmers don’t know what to do with these plants because it also affects their livelihood.

Based on the information they had and due to the spreading sickness caused by E. coli bacteria ,the researchers decided to use Imperata cylindrica as an antibacterial agent against E. coli bacteria. In this way, the researchers are able to help the farmers regarding their problem in Imperata cylindrica and also they help lessen the sickness caused by the E. coli bacteria.

b. Statement of the Problem
The study aims to determine the efficiency of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) on Echerichia coli bacteria. Specifically the study wants
1. To determine the chemical properties and components of Cogon Grass (Imperata cylindrica) that makes it effective as an alternative anti-bacterial agent.

2. To determine what concentration of Cogon grass is effective in preventing E. coli bacteria.
a. T1= 100% cogon grass extracts 0% water.
b. T2=75% cogon grass extracts 25% water.
c. T3= 50% cogon grass extracts 50% water.
d. T4=25% cogon grass extracts 75% water.

3. To determine the zone of inhibition of the...
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