* Title of the Laboratory: Modeling the orbits of planets and satellites * Objective: Formulate models to inter the shape of orbits of planets and satellites. Collect and organize data for aphelion distances and perihelion distances of objects as they orbit the sun Draw conclusions about Kepler’s first and second laws of motion. * Materials: Piece of cardboard, metric ruler, sheet of blank, sharp pencil or pen, white paper, four small pieces or tape string (25cm), two push pins * Procedure: In the book says the procedure

* Questions
1. Measure the aphelion distance, A, by measuring the distance between one focus and the farthest point in the orbit along the major axis. Record your data in the data table. 2. Measure the perihelion distance, P, by measuring the closest distance between one focus and the closest point in the orbit along the major axis. Record the data in the data table. 3. Calculate the experimental eccentricity for each of the objects and record your data in the data table. Use the following equation: 4. Error analysis calculates the percent error for each object using the experimental eccentricities compared to the known eccentricities. Record your values in the data table 5. Analyze why is the shape of the orbit with e = 0 a circle? * An object orbits in an ellipse and a circle is a ellipse where the eccentricity is zero. 6. Compare how does earth’s orbit compare to a circle? * the earth's orbit is in the shape of an ellipse, which is pretty much like an oval, however its really close to a circle, in the earth's case, just a little bit squished 7. Observe which of the orbits...

...Transit
The shape of the orbit is going to be an ellipse. This is caused by the gravitational force acting on the object and explained by Kepler’s First law. Any object travelling in space and orbiting a planet is going to be an ellipse. If the orbit is a circle, then is just a special case of an ellipse. The transfer from Earth to Mars is no exception. Relative to the sun, the rocket is going to launch from the earth radius altitude of 1 AU, and arrive at the Mars altitude of 1.55 AU. In this case, our team considered the one tangent orbit. The one tangent portion of the name means that the orbit will only be tangent to only the Earth orbit. When payload arrives at Mars, it will have a different direction of travel than the planet. This will require an addition burn to change the angle between the planet and payload.
A. Time of Flight - Hohmann
To calculate time of flight for the payload travelling between Earth and Mars, some assumptions are made. It will be assumed that Earth and Mars have circular orbits. In actuality, they have elliptical orbits, but with a very low eccentricity. Eccentricity is a ratio that measures how circular an ellipse is. An eccentricity value of 0 denotes a perfect circle. In this report, it is assumed that Earth and Mars have an eccentricity of 0. It is also assumed that Earth and Mars travel on the same orbital plane. The numerical...

...Move the slider all the way to accurate, click on the tape measure and the grid.
2. Click the radio button for 4 objects and run the simulation until the purple planet (body 2) has made one complete orbit (one year).
3. After the first orbit (year), turn off the traces (show traces box) and watch another orbit (year) of the purple planet (body 2).
Question One:
Is blue moon (body 3) circling the yellow sun (body 1) or the purple planet (body 2)? Explain your answer.
Using the trojan asteroids setting it looks like all 3 bodys are orbiting the yellow sun
4. Increase the mass of the sun (body 1) to 400 and allow the simulation to run for one complete orbit of the purple planet (body 2).
5. Decrease the mass of the sun (body 1) to 175 and allow the simulation to run for one complete orbit of the purple planet (body 2). (~90 seconds)
Question Two:
How do the orbits of the planets change when the mass of the sun is increased or decreased? Why? Explain your answer.
The bigger the sun is the more gravitational pull it it has on the other planets. Therefore when the mass is larger the orbits of each planet are smaller and faster.
Question Three:
Why does the sun (body 1) follow a circular path? How does the path change as its mass changes? Why? Explain your answer.
It orbits about a center of mass in the system which doesn’t change. The bigger the...

...What is a satellite?
A satellite is a small thing orbiting or circling a larger thing. The complete path it follows is called an orbit. The moon is a example of a natural satellite of the earth. Manmade, or artificial satellites are placed into orbit by rockets or space shuttles.
After World War II, the former Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite in 1951, into space. In 1958, the United States launched its first artificial satellite Telstar I into orbit. Since then, many more satellites were made by different countries and launched into space.
How can they help us daily / what is the purpose with satellites
It has been helping scientists find answers to the unknown, and assisting tourists finding their way when they are lost. Today, satellites have become so widely used that some of them have become available to civilians around the globe with over 150 countries funding them. With over 2200 operational satellites orbiting the Earth. If we wish to understand why artificial satellites are so useful, we have to understand what each type of satellites are doing starting with Global Positioning system (GPS), Reconnaissance Satellites, and finally Telecommunications Satellites.
The Global Positioning System provides users with accurate information about their latitude, longitude, velocity and altitude, as well as the time, anywhere in the world. The GPS was launch in 1973 by Navstar in the...

...Name:
Planetary Orbit Simulator – Student Guide
Background Material
Answer the following questions after reviewing the “Kepler's Laws and Planetary
Motion” and “Newton and Planetary Motion” background pages.
Question 1: Draw a line connecting each law on the left with a description of it on the
right.
only a force acting on an
object can change its motion
Kepler’s 1st Law
Kepler’s 2nd Law
planets move faster
when close to the sun
Kepler’s 3rd Law
Newton’s 1st Law
planets orbit the sun
in elliptical paths
planets with large orbits take a
long time to complete an orbit
Question 2: When written as P2 = a3 Kepler's 3rd Law (with P in years and a in AU) is
applicable to …
a) any object orbiting our sun.
b) any object orbiting any star.
c) any object orbiting any other object.
Question 3: The ellipse to the right has an eccentricity of about …
a) 0.25
b) 0.5
c) 0.75
d) 0.9
Question 4: For a planet in an elliptical orbit to “sweep out equal areas in equal amounts
of time” it must …
a) move slowest when near the sun.
b) move fastest when near the sun.
c) move at the same speed at all times.
d) have a perfectly circular orbit.
NAAP – Planetary Orbit Simulator 1/8
Question 5: If a planet is twice as far from the sun at aphelion than at perihelion, then the
strength of the gravitational force at aphelion will be ____________ as it is at perihelion.
a) four times as much
b)...

...simulation loads click Start.
Describe what you see in this simple sun-planet system.
The planet is rapidly rotating around the sun, while the sun is slowly revolving around its own centralized location.
Specifically, what happens to the central object (the Sun)? It slowly revolves around its own central point.
Can you explain why the central object moves?
I would say that it is from gravitational pull. Everything has its own gravity. Everything exerts a pulling force on everything else. Thus, the sun exerts a force within the planet causing it to rotate.
Does the planet orbit in a perfect circle? Is the sun at the center?
Yes, the planet orbits in a perfect circle around the sun. No, the sun is not at the center. It is offset to the right of the center of the circle.
II Click Stop and then select 3 bodies. Then Start
Sketch a complete cycle (orbit)
Watch the ‘funny’ object closely
What is it doing? Describe and explain.
The newly added body appears to be rotating completely around the other body. It has an infinite pattern of doing this.
Could this be the Earth/Moon/Sun system? (Try un-checking Show Traces.)
This could in fact be the Earth/Moon/Sun system. It seems to have the same physical characteristics, as well as actions.
Is there anything you are uncomfortable with in the simulation? Explain.
Yes, it made me really dizzy watching it. If I just watched the...

...90 between the car tires and the road. What is the radius of this circular path?
A. 27 m
B. 59 m
C. 65 m
D. 640 m
6. Two satellites, S1 and S2, are in circular orbits around a planet. Satellite S2 has twice the
mass and twice the orbital radius of satellite S1.
[pic]
What is the ratio of the centripetal force on S2 to that of S1 (S2 : S1) ?
A. 1:1
B. 1:2
C. 1:4
D. 1:8
7. Which of the following is a correct statement about gravity?
A. An object falling freely has no gravitational force on it.
B. The acceleration due to gravity, g, is a universal constant.
C. The gravitational field of a body follows an inverse square law.
D. The gravitational potential energy varies with the square of distance of separation.
8. The mass of planet Neptune is 17 times more than that of the earth. It has a radius 3.8 times that of the earth. Which of the following is the best approximation of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of Neptune?
A. 8.3 m/s2
B. 12 m/s2
C. 44 m/s2
D. 170 m/s2
9. How much work is required to raise a 4.0 x 103 kg object to an altitude of 5.0 x 106 m above the earth’s surface?
[pic]
10. A stationary 1.60x103 kg vehicle is taken from the surface of the moon and placed into a circular orbit at a height of 2.0x106 m above the surface of the moon. Its speed in this orbit is 1.15x103 m/s. How much work is required for this process?
[pic]...

...
Name __________________ Gravitational Lab
Go http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=My_Solar_System
and click on Run Now.
I After the simulation loads click Start.
Describe what you see in this simple sun-planet system.
Specifically, what happens to the central object (the Sun)?
The suns moves also.
Can you explain why the central object moves?
The Sun is pulled by the gravitational forces between itself and the planet
HINT: Is gravitational attraction only the sun pulling on the planet?
Does the planet orbit in a perfect circle? Is the sun at the center?
The planet orbits in an elliptical. No, the Sun is in focus off to the side
II Click Stop and then select 3 bodies. Then Start
Sketch a complete cycle (orbit)
Watch the ‘funny’ object closely
What is it doing? Describe and explain.
The moon orbits the planet that is also orbiting the sun
Could this be the Earth/Moon/Sun system? (Try un-checking Show Traces.)
Yes, but taking a look at the relative masses, this makes a significant difference
Is there anything you are uncomfortable with in the simulation? Explain.
Can you explain the difference in the moon’s path when it is on the right
side of the Sun compared to on the left side? (Turn Traces back on.)
The end points are sharper on the left and the end points are...

...Lab 2 Problem 3: Projectile Motion and Velocity
Abstract
An experiment to determine how the horizontal and vertical velocity components of an object change as a ball flies through the air was carried out. To simulate projectile motion, a ball was tossed in the air and analyzed using video software. Upon analysis, it was determined that there was an absence of a horizontal acceleration, but there was constant vertical acceleration due to the presence of gravity. Thus, it was observed that an object’s horizontal velocity component stayed constant while its vertical velocity component changed. In this manner we concluded that for an object undergoing projectile motion, the horizontal position changes at a constant linear rate while the vertical position changes exponentially in a square-like fashion.
Introduction
A toy company wants to produce an instructional video for jugglers to learn about projectile motion. Because juggling involves a ball flying through the air, knowledge of how a projectile’s horizontal and vertical velocity components behave is beneficial for predicting the position of the ball as it moves through air. In this experiment, a ball was tossed in the air so as to simulate projectile motion conditions. Using video software, the ball’s flight was analyzed to determine how the object’s velocity and position components change.
Prediction
The velocity of an object as a function of time is expressed in equation 1.
1)
Equation 1: Velocity...