* Title of the Laboratory: Modeling the orbits of planets and satellites * Objective: Formulate models to inter the shape of orbits of planets and satellites. Collect and organize data for aphelion distances and perihelion distances of objects as they orbit the sun Draw conclusions about Kepler’s first and second laws of motion. * Materials: Piece of cardboard, metric ruler, sheet of blank, sharp pencil or pen, white paper, four small pieces or tape string (25cm), two push pins * Procedure: In the book says the procedure

* Questions
1. Measure the aphelion distance, A, by measuring the distance between one focus and the farthest point in the orbit along the major axis. Record your data in the data table. 2. Measure the perihelion distance, P, by measuring the closest distance between one focus and the closest point in the orbit along the major axis. Record the data in the data table. 3. Calculate the experimental eccentricity for each of the objects and record your data in the data table. Use the following equation: 4. Error analysis calculates the percent error for each object using the experimental eccentricities compared to the known eccentricities. Record your values in the data table 5. Analyze why is the shape of the orbit with e = 0 a circle? * An object orbits in an ellipse and a circle is a ellipse where the eccentricity is zero. 6. Compare how does earth’s orbit compare to a circle? * the earth's orbit is in the shape of an ellipse, which is pretty much like an oval, however its really close to a circle, in the earth's case, just a little bit squished 7. Observe which of the orbits...

...III. Transit
The shape of the orbit is going to be an ellipse. This is caused by the gravitational force acting on the object and explained by Kepler’s First law. Any object travelling in space and orbiting a planet is going to be an ellipse. If the orbit is a circle, then is just a special case of an ellipse. The transfer from Earth to Mars is no exception. Relative to the sun, the rocket is going to launch from the earth radius altitude of 1 AU, and arrive at...

...made one complete orbit (one year).
3. After the first orbit (year), turn off the traces (show traces box) and watch another orbit (year) of the purple planet (body 2).
Question One:
Is blue moon (body 3) circling the yellow sun (body 1) or the purple planet (body 2)? Explain your answer.
Using the trojan asteroids setting it looks like all 3 bodys are orbiting the yellow sun
4. Increase the mass of the sun (body 1) to 400 and allow the...

...circling a larger thing. The complete path it follows is called an orbit. The moon is a example of a natural satellite of the earth. Manmade, or artificial satellites are placed into orbit by rockets or space shuttles.
After World War II, the former Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite in 1951, into space. In 1958, the United States launched its first artificial satellite Telstar I into orbit. Since then, many...

...Name:
Planetary Orbit Simulator – Student Guide
Background Material
Answer the following questions after reviewing the “Kepler's Laws and Planetary
Motion” and “Newton and Planetary Motion” background pages.
Question 1: Draw a line connecting each law on the left with a description of it on the
right.
only a force acting on an
object can change its motion
Kepler’s 1st Law
Kepler’s 2nd Law
planets move faster
when close to the sun
Kepler’s 3rd Law
Newton’s 1st Law
planets...

...everything else. Thus, the sun exerts a force within the planet causing it to rotate.
Does the planet orbit in a perfect circle? Is the sun at the center?
Yes, the planet orbits in a perfect circle around the sun. No, the sun is not at the center. It is offset to the right of the center of the circle.
II Click Stop and then select 3 bodies. Then Start
Sketch a complete cycle (orbit)
Watch the ‘funny’ object closely
What is...

...circular path on a dry level
road surface where the coefficient of friction = 0.90 between the car tires and the road. What is the radius of this circular path?
A. 27 m
B. 59 m
C. 65 m
D. 640 m
6. Two satellites, S1 and S2, are in circular orbits around a planet. Satellite S2 has twice the
mass and twice the orbital radius of satellite S1.
[pic]
What is the ratio of the centripetal force on S2 to that of S1 (S2 : S1) ?
A. 1:1
B. 1:2
C. 1:4
D. 1:8
7. Which of...

...
Name __________________ Gravitational Lab
Go http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=My_Solar_System
and click on Run Now.
I After the simulation loads click Start.
Describe what you see in this simple sun-planet system.
Specifically, what happens to the central object (the Sun)?
The suns moves also.
Can you explain why the central object moves?
The Sun is pulled by the gravitational forces between...

...Lab #1: Projectile Motion
Purpose: To determine experimentally the initial and final velocities of an air powered projectile.
Hypothesis: If the angle of the rocket is launched at 45 degrees than the distance and velocity will maximize.
Materials:
Rocket launching platform
Rocket launcher
Rocket body
Air pump
Safety goggles
Rubber washer
Nose cone
40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 angle wooden blocks
Measuring wheel
Procedure:
1. The rocket was assembled by...

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