Making things look bigger
When you use an optical instrument, whether it be something very simple like a magnifying glass, or more complicated like a telescope or microscope, you're usually trying to make things look bigger so you can more easily see fine details. One thing to remember about this is that if you want to make things look bigger, you're always going to use converging mirrors or lenses. Diverging mirrors or lenses always give smaller images. When using a converging lens, it's helpful to remember these rules of thumb. If the object is very far away, the image will be tiny and very close to the focal point. As the object moves towards the lens, the image moves out from the focal point, growing as it does so. The object and image are exactly the same size when the object is at 2F, twice the focal distance from the lens. Moving the object from 2F towards F, the image keeps moving out away from the lens, and growing, until it goes to infinity when the object is at F, the focal point. Moving the object still closer to the lens, the image steadily comes in towards the lens from minus infinity, and gets smaller the closer the object is to the lens. Note that similar rules of thumb apply for a converging mirror, too. Multiple lenses
Many useful devices, such as microscopes and telescopes, use more than one lens to form images. To analyze any system with more than one lens, work in steps. Each lens takes an object and creates an image. The original object is the object for the first lens, and that creates an image. That image is the object for the second lens, and so on. We won't use more than two lenses, and we can do a couple of examples to see how you analyze problems like this. A microscope
A basic microscope is made up of two converging lenses. One reason for using two lenses rather than just one is that it's easier to get higher magnification. If you want an overall magnification of 35, for instance, you can use one lens to magnify by a factor of...
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