DOP Final Paper
19 April 2011
Oppositional Defiant Disorder
Oppositional Defiant Disorder, ODD, is often found in children who developed Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, and usually develops into Conduct Disorder when no course of treatment is sought out.
ODD is characterized in the DSM-IV as children who often lose their temper, often argues with adults, actively defies or refuses to comply with adults’ requests or rules, deliberately annoys people, they are often touchy or easily annoyed by others, and they are spiteful or vindictive. The age of onset is typically around 8 years old and there must be a pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months and have four or more of the characteristics previously stated (pg 158).
There are a few risk factors involved in the development of conduct problems such as child, family, peer, school and community factors. Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been identified as a demographic risk factor for behavioral problems (McKinney& Renk, 2007). Another research finding was about a study conducted by Frick et al. and they found that mothers of children with Conduct Disorder (CD) were significantly more likely than mothers of control children to be poor at supervising their child's behavior and inconsistent in applying discipline (Frick, Lahey, Loeber, Stouthamer-Loeber, Christ, & Hanson, 1992). This finding suggests that the mothers parenting is a risk factor for oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Children who have Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADHD, have a co-occurrence with ODD and CD over all ages (van Lier, Muthen, van der Sar, Crignen, 2004). Peer relationships play a crucial role in the child’s development in that their peers reinforce the disruptive or aggressive child’s acts by backing down and allowing them to succeed (2004). Therefore, with this knowledge of how much peers and adults influence the child, a few...