Oppositional Defiant Disorder

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Understanding ODD

Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a diagnosis, usually in children and adolescents, and more often found in males rather than females. The common symptoms of ODD are delinquent behavior, aggression, short temper, disobedience, and problems with authority figures. Children and adolescents diagnosed with ODD will often show signs by purposefully irritating and arguing those around them in order to get a reaction from them, deliberately ignoring and disobeying rules, and blaming others for what they do. This paper examines this disorder, how it is assessed, monitored, treated, and prevented. We will examine how outside factors impact those with ODD, and lastly we will review a clinical case.

Article Reviews

To have a bettered understanding of Oppositional Defiant Disorder, several articles have been reviewed. These articles offer various perspectives, case examinations and evaluations of this behavioral disorder. Social dynamics, gender, age and socio-economic status are included as factors in assessing and treating ODD.

Journal Article - Angel

In the article, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (2008), Hamilton and Armando stated that Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., as recurrent patterns of developmentally unsuitable, negativistic and disobedient behavior toward individuals with authority. This behavior frequently emerges in the preschool years, but initially it can be complicated to differentiate from developmentally appropriate, albeit difficult behavior. Oppositional defiant disorder is amongst the most frequently diagnosed mental health conditions in childhood. Oppositional defiant disorder is more widespread in boys than girls, but the data are inconsistent. Although, some researchers recommend that Girls use more verbal rather than physical aggression, such as excluding peers, and/or spreading rumors. In order to be diagnosed with ODD, behavior must be present for more than six months and must not be caused by psychosis or a mood disorder, and the behavior must negatively impact the child's academic, social, and /or occupational functioning. Children often have ODD during their elementary school years if they had a stable pattern of oppositional behavior during their preschool years. Children with ODD typically have overwrought relationships with their parents, teachers, and peers, and have elevated rates of simultaneous conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and mood disorders. Moreover, in this article it was stated that children with ODD are at greater risk of developing conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder during adulthood In the article, it was stated that there is no single cause or even greatest single risk factor for ODD. Rather, it is most understood in the framework of a biopsychosocial model where a child's biological vulnerabilities and protective factors interrelate complexly with the protective and injurious features of his or her atmosphere to establish the likelihood of developing this disorder. Also, it was stated that neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine have been investigated in their role with aggression. However, no single neurotransmitter or neurological trail has been recognized as the root cause. Hamilton and Armando (2008) stated that parent training and joint problem solving is a psychological intervention that endeavors to develop a child's skills in enduring aggravation, being flexible, and avoiding emotional conflicts. For the reason that parents frequently see their child's behavior as intentional and under the child's control and then this may have undesirable effects on the mental health of their parents. Thus parent training is beneficial for both the child and parents. Finally, Hamilton and Armando (2008) also stated, when ODD coexists with attention-deficit/hyperactivity...
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