Oppositional Defiant Disorder

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Oppositional Defiant Disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, is a recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least 6 months and is characterized by the frequent occurrence of at least four of the following behaviors: losing temper, arguing with adults, actively defying or refusing to comply with the requests or rules of adults, deliberately doing things that will annoy other people, blaming others for his or her own mistakes or misbehavior, being touchy or easily annoyed by others, being angry and resentful, or being spiteful or vindictive.

Typically oppositional defiant diagnoses are said by developmental psychologist to have unresolved issues as toddlers. The deviants have a difficult time learning to separate from their primary attachment figure and developing the skills to be independent. Insecurely attached babies are thus more likely to exhibit symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder than securely attached babies; due to the lack of independence that the securely attached babies obtain, insecurely attached babies never resolve the issue and grow to become Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Oppositional Defiant Disorder children as well as insecurely attached babies are said to have a temperament that is essentially genetically predetermined that may have a heavy hand in the development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and insecure attachment.

The opposing theory is that negative reinforcement causes children to develop Oppositional Defiant Disorder. The learning theory suggests that the more one negatively reinforces a child the greater the intensity of Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Other factors said to perhaps cause Oppositional Defiant Disorder maybe family response to behavior, genetic component triggered by environment, and biochemical or neurological factor. Risk factors for Oppositional Defiant...
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