Group Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives. Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization's structure. Informal Group A group that is neither formally nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contract. Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manner. Task Group Those working together to complete a job task. Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. Five stage group development model Five distinct stages groups go through: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. Performing Stage The fourth stage, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance. Punctuated-equilibrium model Transitions temporary groups go through between inertia and activity. Psychological Contract an unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee, and vice versa. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Zimbardo's Prison Experiment
Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group's members. Hawthorn Studies
Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform. Conformity Adjusting one's behavior to align with the norms of...
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