1. What are the differences between job-enlargement, job-enrichment, and job-rotation? Discuss the benefits of using each of these. Job design is an approach that specifies the tasks that constitute a job for an individual or a group. There are seven components of job design, and JOB expansion is one of them. It includes: • Job enlargement: We add tasks requiring similar skill to an existent job. You are using the same skills, but the tasks are different in themselves and the employee is not ascending in the hierarchy of the company. It’s a horizontal enlargement. Example: Xixas in Google Benefit: Employee is less bored and “feels more important” and motivated towards the job. There is variety. • Job rotation: A variation of job enlargement that occurs when an employee is allowed to move from one specialized job to another Benefit: Variety has been added to the employee’s perspective of the job and of the business. • Job enrichment: A method of giving an employee more responsibility that includes some of the planning and control necessary for job accomplishment. For example, having dpt store salespeople responsible for ordering, as well as selling, their goods. This can be thought as a vertical expansion, Benefit: adding management functions to the job makes employees feel empowered. Empowering employees gives them extra responsibilities and therefore take “ownership” of their jobs so they have a personal interest in improving performance.
2. Describe the benefits of using a project management system such as PERT or CPM. What is the crucial difference between the two? Under what circumstances would you use these tools? PERT: Program Evaluation and Review Technique
A technique to enable managers to schedule, monitor, and control large and complex projects by employing 3 time estimates for each activity. CPM: Critical Path Method
A network technique using only 1 time factor per activity that enables managers to schedule, monitor, and control large and complex projects. Unlike PERT, each activity in CPM can have only one time factor for each activity, i.e, assumes that activity times are known with certainty. Thus, the result is not accurate as PERT, but in many cases it is sufficient.
3. Define and describe CAD, CAM, Robot, FMS, AGV and CIM. CAD: Computer Aided Design
Is the use of computers to Interactively design products and prepare engineering documentation. CAM: Computer-aided manufacturing h
The use of information technology to control machinery. When CAD information is translated into instructions for CAM, the result is CAD/CAM. Benfits: Product Quality, Shorter design time, Production cost reductions, Database availability and New range of capabilities. Robot: A flexible machine with the ability to hold, move, or grab items. It functions through electronic impulses that activate motors and switches. Robots may be used effectively to perform tasks that are specially monotonous or dangerous or those that can be improved by the substitution of mechanical for human effort. FMS: Flexible Manufacturing System
When a central computer provides instructions to each workstation and to the material-handling equipment (which moves material to that station), the system is known as a FMS. It is flexible because both the material-handling devices and the machines themselves are controlled by easily changed electronic signals (computer programs). Operators simply load new programs, as necessary, to produce different products. You can economically produce low volume but higher variety. AGV: Automated Guided Vehicle
Electronically guided and controlled cart used to move materials. They are also used in hospitals and jails to deliver meals. CIM: Computer Integrated Manufacturing
A manufacturing system in which CAD, FMS, inventory control, warehousing, and shipping are integrated to provide a flexible manufacturing process. The first...