Operant Conditioning Paper

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Operant Conditioning Paper
Operant conditioning relies on the consequences of an exhibited behavior, and the impact the behavior has on certain learning experiences. This type of conditioning requires stimuli and reinforcers (both positive and negative) (Olsen & Hergenhahn, 2009). Along with using punishments that exhibit both positive and negative influences, both of which contribute to behavior and learning. Operant conditioning can be observed on a daily basis. It is a typical form of learning that some might take for granted. Operant conditioning can be used to influence certain behaviors as well as to decrease certain behaviors (Kirsch & Lynn, 2004). This is done when punishments or reinforcements are used to adapt or eliminate a specific behavior (including fear, anxiety and phobias). Reinforcements can be used strengthen or increase a behavior that accompanies the reinforcement (Barash, 2005). Positive reinforcers are events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior, thus allowing for better or continuous behavior. Children attaining good grades would receive a positive reinforcement that would allow them to continue to do well in school. Negative reinforcement is the removal of unfavorable events or outcomes after the behavior is displayed (Barash, 2005). This would strengthen the response by removing something that is considered to be unpleasant. Like an unruly animal that causes fear, taking the animal away creates a peaceful environment. When it comes to modifying behaviors some might consider punishment to adapt or modify specific behaviors. Punishment is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. There is positive and negative punishments; positive punishments (referred to as punishment by assignment), (Kirsch & Lynn, 2004) involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows. This type of punishment would be used to adapt or modify...
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