Open skies is an international policy concept which calls for the liberalization of rules and regulations on international aviation industry most specially commercial aviation - opening a free market for the airline industry. Its primary objectives are: • to liberalize the rules for international aviation markets and minimizes government intervention — the provisions apply to passenger, all-cargo and combination air transportation and encompass both scheduled and charter services; or • to adjust the regime under which military and other state-based flights may be permitted. For open skies to effect, a bilateral (and sometimes multilateral) Air Transport Agreement has to be concluded between two or more nations. |Contents | |1 Background | |2 Bilateral Air Transport Agreement | |3 Multilateral Air Transport Agreement | |4 First step towards a civil transport regime | |5 Civil transport open skies | |6 Key open skies provisions | |7 Military regulation | |8 See also | |9 References | |10 External links |
To achieve sovereignty, a state must be recognised as having both de facto and de jure control over all the land, sea and air space within defined territorial boundaries. Once a state comes into being, the concept of trespass applies to any part of the state entered without permission. Hence, whether it is an individual wishing to cross a land border, a ship aiming to enter or pass through territorial waters, or an aircraft seeking to overfly, prior consent is required. Those who do not seek permission will, at the very least, be liable to arrest and prosecution by the offended state. At worst, entry may be considered an act of war. For example, in 1983, Korean Air Flight 007 strayed into Soviet air space and was shot down. Since World War II, most states have invested national pride in the creation and defence of airlines (sometimes called flag carriers or legacy airlines). Air transportation differs from many other forms of commerce, not only because it has a major international component, but also because many of these airlines were wholly or partly government owned. Thus, as international competition grew, various degrees of protectionism were imposed. Bilateral Air Transport Agreement
A bilateral air transport agreement is a contract to liberalize aviation services, usually commercial civil aviation, between two contracting states. A bilateral air services agreement allows the airlines of both states to launch commercial flights that covers the transport of passengers and cargoes of both countries. A bilateral agreement may sometimes include the transport of military personnel of the contracting states. In a bilateral agreement, the contracting states may allow the airlines of the contracting parties to bring passengers and cargoes to a third country or pick up passengers and cargoes from the host country to the home country of the airline or to a third country in which the contracting states has existing open skies agreement. Multilateral Air Transport Agreement
A multilateral air services agreement is the same as bilateral agreement, the only difference is that it involves more than two contracting states. First step towards a civil transport regime
The Convention on International Civil Aviation (1944), signed at Chicago (Also called the Chicago Convention), was intended to prepare a framework...
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