Oop Concepts

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OOP which fully means Object Oriented Programming. It is a programming paradigm that uses object consisting of data fields and methods together with their interaction to design applications and computer programs. The design concentrate on objects upon which functions or procedure itself. Object oriented programming is a very reliable method of programming because the re-usability of code and self contained nature of the program component. Object oriented programming method started in the early 1960s. A breakthrough involving instances and object was achieved at MIT with the PDF-1. The first programming language to use object was Simula 67 which was designed for the purpose of creating simulation by Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl in Norway. The term object oriented programming was first used by Xerox PARC in then small talk programming language. Object oriented programming as used in the small talk is dynamic as the objects could be changed; created or deleted as against the static systems that are commonly used before.

Object oriented programming became the dominant programming methodology in the early and mid 1990s. when programming languages supporting the techniques became widely available examples of which are visual Fox Pro 3.0 and Delph 1.0 its dominance was further enhanced by the raising popularity of graphical user interfaces which rely heavily upon OOP techniques. OOP as a programming language has some features that relate with it which are mentioned below: The feature of object oriented programming are:

Emphasis is on data rather than procedures.
Data is hidden and cannot be accessed by external functions, this is referred to as data encapsulation only a restricted set of operations can be done on the hidden member of the class by executing special functions called Methods. The advantages of using data encapsulation comes when the implementation of the class changes but the interface remains the same. Inheritance- Specific classes are made from more general ones. The derived class inherits all the features of its parent or base class and is free to add features of its own. Dynamic Bonding of Functions Calls I.e Polymorphism- This allows the programme to treat derived class members just like their parent class members. It is Object-Oriented.

It is Simple.
It is Robust.
It is Multithreaded.
It is Architecturally Neutral.
It has High Performance.
It is Dynamic.


The following are the basic concepts used in object-oriented programming.


Data abstraction





It can represent a person, a bank account or any item that a program can handle.

When a program is executed, the objects interact by sending messages to one

another. For example, if ‘customer’ and ‘account’ are two objects in a program, then

the customer object may send message to account object requesting for a bank

balance. Each object contains data and code to manipulate data. Objects can

interact without having to know details of each other’s data or code. It is sufficient

to know the type of massage accepted and the type of response returned by the



We have just mentioned that objects contain data and function or code to manipulate

that data. The entire set of data and code of an object can be made a user-defined

data type with the help of a class. In fact objects are variables of type class. Once

a class has been defined, we can create any number of objects associated with that class. For

example, mango, apple and orange are members of class fruit. If

fruit has been defined as a class, then the statement fruit mango, will create an

object mango belonging to the class fruit.

Data Abstraction

Abstraction refers to the act of representing essential...
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