Online Games Is Formative Way of Learning

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  • Topic: Assessment, Educational psychology, Early childhood education
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  • Published : March 24, 2013
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Supporting early learning
and development through
formative assessment
A research paper

Supporting early learning
and development through
formative assessment
A research paper

Elizabeth Dunphy, EdD

Commissioned by the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment, NCCA

© NCCA 2008
24 Merrion Square, Dublin 2
www.ncca.ie

Aistear: the Early Childhood Curriculum Framework

Contents
Glossary

5

Introduction

6

Section 1: General background
Purpose of the paper
Assessment and curriculum
The Irish context
The practice context
The legislative context
Ethical Issues
Towards a definition of formative assessment
Supporting learning and development

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Section 2: The nature of early learning
Characteristics of early learning
The complexity of early learning
Key theoretical constructs for assessment
Ecological perspectives
Socio-cultural perspectives
Activity theory
Children’s agency
Children’s collaboration in learning
Intersubjectivity and collaboration
Children as co-constructors of knowledge
Play as a context for formative assessment
Emerging approaches to assessment
Performance assessment and authentic assessment
Summary

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Section 3: What to assess in early learning
The essentials of learning
Dispositions
A range of cognitive abilities
Emotional well-being
Self-concept and sociability
Summary

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Section 4: How to assess early learning
A narrative approach to assessment of learning in early childhood Learning stories: A credit-focused approach
A fully-contextualised account of learning
Methods for collecting information on children’s learning
Observing and empathising
Conversations with children
Clinical interviews
Making sense of children’s learning
Sustaining learning and development through documentation
Portfolios
Summary

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Aistear: the Early Childhood Curriculum Framework

Section 5: Assessment and the practitioner
Professional knowledge
Skills base
Ethical considerations
Manageability of assessment
Tensions

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Concluding comments

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References

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Table 1: Gardner’s understanding of human development and assessment and Shepard’s guiding principles of assessment

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Aistear: the Early Childhood Curriculum Framework

Glossary

Glossary
Agency: Children are active in their own learning. Some ways in which they display their agency is by taking the initiative in learning situations, by observing and becoming involved in ongoing events, or by initiating conversations with others.

Authentic assessment: Assessing children on tasks that are part of their ordinary everyday experiences in their early education and care settings.
Co-construction: This occurs when children and/or practitioners construct meaning and knowledge about the world together in interaction.
Collaborative learning: This is learning that takes place in social contexts and using the resources of the environment.
Formative assessment: This is assessment that informs teaching and learning. It is concerned with the shortterm collection and use of evidence for the guidance of learning. Intersubjectivity: This is the mutual understanding achieved by people in communication. Meta-cognition: This refers to what children think about their own learning, thinking and remembering and how the act of thinking about these processes affect the ways in which children then go about intentionally learning, thinking and remembering. It is a process whereby children become aware of their own thought processes.

Pedagogy of mutuality: This perspective recognises that both child and adult bring beliefs and ideas to the learning situation and that discussion and interaction are the means by which a shared frame of reference is established. This results in an exchange of...
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