One Sample Hypothesis Testing
The significance of earnings is a growing façade in today’s economy. Daily operation, individuals, and families alike rely heavily on each sale or paycheck to provide financial stability throughout. Depending on the nature of labor, wages are typically compensated in accords to one’s experience and education or specialization. Moreover, calculating the specified industry, occupation title, education, experience on-the-job, gender, race, age, and membership to a union will additionally influence wages. To help analyze operation pay scales and remain within budget a business should obtain data pertaining to current variations in wage. Today statistics allow a business or businesses to do so in a timely and proficient manner. The purpose of the succeeding report is to communicate a hypothesis statement regarding the wages of Hispanics and Caucasian workers. Team B would like to determine whether race has an influence on the wage of these specific workers. Team B will convey this data of wages in both a numerical and verbal manner. Moreover, it is to describe and perform the five-step hypothesis test on the wages and wage earner data set, including data tables and results of the computations of a z-test or t-test by way of graphical and tabular methods. Also the paper will depict the results of all testing and convey how the results given Team B’s hypothesis testing may be used to answer the research question. Hypotheses

Learning Team B’s verbal hypothesis question asks “Does the mean salary of a Hispanic worker exceed thirty thousand dollars and that of the mean salary of a Caucasian worker?” The numerical question used for our hypothesis test is µ > $30,000. Another numerical question is µ1>µ2. µ1 is defined as the sample mean of Hispanic workers salaries and µ2 defined as the sample mean of Caucasian workers salaries. The Hispanic sample population is six workers from the “Wages and Wage Earners Data Set.” Learning Team B...

...interest, and city of origin. Century National Bank has a vast amount of account information to maintain. This one-samplehypothesis paper will formulate both a numerical and verbal hypothesis and show the five step hypothesis of the data that is acquired. The experiment will also describe the results and findings of the hypothesistesting to answer the question above. This paper will analyze raw data tables and the results of the Z-test using both graphical and tabular methods.
Numerical and Verbal HypothesisAccording to Caroline Fouts (2008), "Debit cards have become a very popular way to pay for everything from fast food to rental cars." The Federal Reserve reports that debit card transactions have been growing more than 20% annually and have surpassed credit card transactions" (¶ 4). The appeal is understandable as debit cards are quick and convenient to use (Fouts, 2008). The Century National Bank Data Set will help us determine if the average balance of account holders is directly related to ownership of a debit card. The bank data will either allow us to accept or reject our hypothesis that the average balance of account holders with debit cards is lower than those without. The research for the hypothesis will be completed by calculating that average balances of customers with and comparing the average balances of those without debit cards....

...OneSampleHypothesisTesting
I am working on a problem in Excel but I am having trouble with my T- Distribution. I am using the TDIST function but have been unsucessful in my calculations.
Here is the case scenario:
One hundred customers at the Mall of Elbonia (MoE) were given a brief interview as they concluded their shopping trips. Examine the resulting data in the Mall of Elbonia Interview Results file. For each customer (by row), the spreadsheet contains data on:
The customer's gender.
How long the customer spent in the mall.
How much he or she spent on food and clothing purchases.
The customer's rating of the mall's friendliness and attractiveness.
A.) MoE's concessions manager believes the average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit has increased over the historical average of $18.75, due to the opening of some new upscale restaurants in the mall. Use the data in the file to test his hypothesis.
Answers
• What is the null hypothesis?
The null hypothesis tested is
H0: The average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit ≤ $18.75 (µ ≤ 18.75)
• Would you reject it at alpha = .05?
The alternative hypothesis is
H1: The average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit > $18.75 (µ > 18.75)
Significance level = 0.05
Test Statistic used is , where = 19.932478964, n =...

...OneSampleHypothesisTesting Paper
Do Major League Baseball teams with higher salaries win more frequently than other teams? Although many people believe that the larger payroll budgets win games, which point does vary, depending on the situation. “…performances by individual players vary quite a bit from year to year, preventing owners from guaranteeing success on the field. Team spending is certainly a component in winning, but no team can buy a championship.” (Bradbury). For some, it’s hard not to root for the lower paid teams. If the big money teams, like Goliath, are always supposed to win, it’s hard not cheer for David. This paper will discuss the effects of payroll budgets on the percentage of wins for the 30 Major League Baseball teams of 2007.
There’s 30 major league baseball teams divided into two divisions. The payrolls for the 2007 30 major league teams are based on a 40 man roster and include salaries and prorated shares of signing bonuses, earned incentive bonuses, non-cash compensation, buyouts of unexercised options and cash transactions. There may be some cases were parts of the salaries are deferred or discounted to reflect present-day values. The following list is in order of highest payroll. The chart on the left is payroll and the one on the right is number of wins for 2007.
Based on the charts if a team is at the top end of the payroll chances are they will have a good...

...OneSampleHypothesis Test
Jeremey Yoppini, Mayela Castillo, Kristopher Olstad, Areli Mejia, Heather Smith
RES342
December 21, 2011
Thomas Allen
OneSampleHypothesis Test
Earning potential and income of every person is severely different; many factors have a hand in determining the amount of money a person makes and how much his or her earning potential can increase. Some of the factors currently determining the earning potential of people around the United States are; education, marital status, age, union participation, race, age, years of experience, sex, the industry in which the individual works, and the position held by individual. This paper is going to show the correlation between marital status and income, the team has disregarded all other determinants to answer the research question clearly. The research question that the team has developed and the hypothesis was formed from goes as follows; does marital status affect earning potential?
Every decade that passes, it seems as though people are waiting longer to get married. Waiting for job security, completion of college and social norms are just a few factors that influence this trend. This is a big change from 50 years ago, when most people would get married straight out of high school. The fact is being single has some advantages when deciding to start a career, it also affects ones earning...

...APP6JMaloney problems 2. 4, 6, 10, 18, 22, 24
2 ) The value of the z score un a hypothesis test is influenced by a variety of factors.
Assuming that all the other variables are held constant, explain how the value
of Z is influenced by each of the following?
Z= M - u / SD
a) Increasing the difference between the sample mean and the original.
The z score represents the distance of each X or score from the mean.
If the distance between thesample mean and the population mean the z score will
increase.
b) Increasing the population standard deviation.
The standard deviation is the factor that is used to divide by in the equation. the bigger the SD,
then the smaller the z score.
c) Increasing the number of scores in the sample.
Should bring the samples mean closer to the population mean so z score will get smaller.
4) If the alpha level is changed from .05 to .01
a) what happens to the boundaries for the critical region?
It reduces the power of the test to prove the hypothesis.
You increase the chance of rejecting a true H
b) what happens to the probability of a type 1 error?
Type 1 error is falsely reporting a hypothesis,
Where you increase the chance that you will reject a true null hypothesis.
6) A researcher is investigating the effectiveness of a new study skills training program for elementary
school childreen. A...

...all, the video did a fair job buttressing my understanding of hypothesistesting. The textbook explained the aspects and steps of hypothesistesting in a legible fashion, while the video helped demonstrate a real-life application.
I learned from the text that hypothesistesting is a “Procedure for deciding whether the outcome of a study (results from a sample) supports a particular theory or practical innovation (which is thought to apply to a population)” (Aron A., Aron, E., and Coups, 2011, p. 145). I also learned that hypothesistesting follows a set procedure that appears as follows:
Step 1) Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations
- Basically, a researcher constructs a hypothesis. Then he/she forms a null hypothesis that opposes the research hypothesis in
polar fashion. To help support one’s research hypothesis, one has to disprove the null hypothesis.
Step 2) Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution
- When using two or more samples, one must gather information about the distribution of means.
Step 3) Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null...

...HYPOTHESISTESTING
WHAT IS THIS HYPOTHESIS????
• In simple words it means a mere assumption or supposition to be proved of disproved.
• But, for a researcher it is a formal question that he intends to resolve.
• Example: I assume that 1) under stress and anxiety a person goes into depression.
2) It leads to aggressive behaviour.
Eg. : Students who get better counselling in a university will show a greater increase in creativity than students who were not counselled.
• So, the hypothesis should be capable of being verified and tested.
CHARACTERISTICS
• Should be clear and precise – inferences not reliable
• Capable of being tested
“ A hypothesis is testable if other deductions can be made from it which, in turn can be confirmed or disproved by observation.”
• Should be limited in scope and must be specific
• Should be stated in simple terms -understandable by all concerned.
• Must explain the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation.
BASIC CONCEPTS: NULL & ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
• If we are to compare two methods A & B and both are equally good, then this assumption is termed as null hypothesis(H0)
• If it is stated that method A is better than method B-alternative hypothesis(Ha)
LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE
• A very important concept in the context of hypothesistesting
• It is represented in a % age...

...CHAPTER
8
Introduction to
HypothesisTesting
8.1
Inferential Statistics
and HypothesisTesting
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
8.2 Four Steps to
HypothesisTesting
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
8.3
HypothesisTesting and
Sampling Distributions
8.4
Making a Decision:
Types of Error
8.5
Testing a ResearchHypothesis: Examples
Using the z Test
8.6
Research in Focus:
Directional Versus
Nondirectional Tests
8.7
Measuring the Size of
an Effect: Cohen’s d
8.8
Effect Size, Power, and
Sample Size
8.9
Additional Factors That
Increase Power
1 Identify the four steps of hypothesistesting.
2 Define null hypothesis, alternative hypothesis,
level of significance, test statistic, p value, and
statistical significance.
3 Define Type I error and Type II error, and identify the
type of error that researchers control.
4 Calculate the one-independent sample z test and
interpret the results.
5 Distinguish between a one-tailed and two-tailed test,
and explain why a Type III error is possible only with
one-tailed tests.
6 Explain what effect size measures and compute a
Cohen’s d for the...