One Sample Hypothesis Testing
I am working on a problem in Excel but I am having trouble with my T- Distribution. I am using the TDIST function but have been unsucessful in my calculations.

Here is the case scenario:

One hundred customers at the Mall of Elbonia (MoE) were given a brief interview as they concluded their shopping trips. Examine the resulting data in the Mall of Elbonia Interview Results file. For each customer (by row), the spreadsheet contains data on:

The customer's gender.
How long the customer spent in the mall.
How much he or she spent on food and clothing purchases.
The customer's rating of the mall's friendliness and attractiveness.

A.) MoE's concessions manager believes the average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit has increased over the historical average of $18.75, due to the opening of some new upscale restaurants in the mall. Use the data in the file to test his hypothesis. Answers

• What is the null hypothesis?
The null hypothesis tested is
H0: The average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit ≤ $18.75 (µ ≤ 18.75) • Would you reject it at alpha = .05?
The alternative hypothesis is
H1: The average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit > $18.75 (µ > 18.75) Significance level = 0.05
Test Statistic used is , where = 19.932478964, n = 100, s = 4.254541656 (Please see the excel spreadsheet) Therefore, = 2.779333379
Decision rule: Reject the null hypothesis, if the calculated value of test statistic is greater than the critical value of t with 99 d.f. at the significance level 0.05. Upper critical value = 1.660391157

Conclusion: Reject the null hypothesis, since the calculated value of test statistic is greater than the critical value. The sample provides enough evidence to conclude that the average amount that mall customers spend on food during a visit has increased over the historical average of $18.75. Details

...OneSampleHypothesisTesting
The significance of earnings is a growing façade in today’s economy. Daily operation, individuals, and families alike rely heavily on each sale or paycheck to provide financial stability throughout. Depending on the nature of labor, wages are typically compensated in accords to one’s experience and education or specialization. Moreover, calculating the specified industry, occupation title, education, experience on-the-job, gender, race, age, and membership to a union will additionally influence wages. To help analyze operation pay scales and remain within budget a business should obtain data pertaining to current variations in wage. Today statistics allow a business or businesses to do so in a timely and proficient manner.
The purpose of the succeeding report is to communicate a hypothesis statement regarding the wages of Hispanics and Caucasian workers. Team B would like to determine whether race has an influence on the wage of these specific workers. Team B will convey this data of wages in both a numerical and verbal manner. Moreover, it is to describe and perform the five-step hypothesis test on the wages and wage earner data set, including data tables and results of the computations of a z-test or t-test by way of graphical and tabular methods. Also the paper will depict the results of all testing and convey how the results given...

...OneSampleHypothesisTesting Paper
Do Major League Baseball teams with higher salaries win more frequently than other teams? Although many people believe that the larger payroll budgets win games, which point does vary, depending on the situation. “…performances by individual players vary quite a bit from year to year, preventing owners from guaranteeing success on the field. Team spending is certainly a component in winning, but no team can buy a championship.” (Bradbury). For some, it’s hard not to root for the lower paid teams. If the big money teams, like Goliath, are always supposed to win, it’s hard not cheer for David. This paper will discuss the effects of payroll budgets on the percentage of wins for the 30 Major League Baseball teams of 2007.
There’s 30 major league baseball teams divided into two divisions. The payrolls for the 2007 30 major league teams are based on a 40 man roster and include salaries and prorated shares of signing bonuses, earned incentive bonuses, non-cash compensation, buyouts of unexercised options and cash transactions. There may be some cases were parts of the salaries are deferred or discounted to reflect present-day values. The following list is in order of highest payroll. The chart on the left is payroll and the one on the right is number of wins for 2007.
Based on the charts if a team is at the top end of the payroll chances are they will have a good...

...interest, and city of origin. Century National Bank has a vast amount of account information to maintain. This one-samplehypothesis paper will formulate both a numerical and verbal hypothesis and show the five step hypothesis of the data that is acquired. The experiment will also describe the results and findings of the hypothesistesting to answer the question above. This paper will analyze raw data tables and the results of the Z-test using both graphical and tabular methods.
Numerical and Verbal HypothesisAccording to Caroline Fouts (2008), "Debit cards have become a very popular way to pay for everything from fast food to rental cars." The Federal Reserve reports that debit card transactions have been growing more than 20% annually and have surpassed credit card transactions" (¶ 4). The appeal is understandable as debit cards are quick and convenient to use (Fouts, 2008). The Century National Bank Data Set will help us determine if the average balance of account holders is directly related to ownership of a debit card. The bank data will either allow us to accept or reject our hypothesis that the average balance of account holders with debit cards is lower than those without. The research for the hypothesis will be completed by calculating that average balances of customers with and comparing the average balances of those without debit cards....

...HypothesisTesting I
Pat Obi
What is a “Hypothesis?”
A statement or claim about the value of a
population parameter: μ, σ2, p
Pat Obi, Purdue University Calumet
2
Decision Rule
1.
x 0
Z
s
n
Compare calculated Z value to Z value from
Table (critical Z value)
Reject H0 if calculated Z value lies in the
rejection/significance region (i.e. region)
ALTERNATIVELY:
2.
Compare p-value to
Reject H0 if p-value <
Pat Obi, Purdue University Calumet
3
Two-Tail Test
Ex: H0: 0 = 50; H1: 0 ≠ 50. Test at α = 0.05
Reject H0 if calculated Z is either less than ZCV
on the left tail or greater than ZCV on the right
0
Rejection region: /2 = 0.025
Rejection region: /2 = 0.025
0
ZCV = -1.96
ZCV = 1.96
Pat Obi, Purdue University Calumet
4
One-Tail Test: Right/Upper Tail
Ex: H0: 0 ≤ 55; H1: 0 > 55. Test at α = 0.05
Reject H0 if calculated Z > Table Z (i.e. Zcv)
0
Rejection region: = 0.05
ZCV = 1.645
Pat Obi, Purdue University Calumet
5
One-Tail Test: Left/Lower Tail
Ex: H0: 0 ≥ 12; H1: 0 < 12. Test at α = 0.05
Reject H0 if calculated Z < Table Z (i.e. Zcv)
0
Rejection region: = 0.05
ZCV = -1.645
Pat Obi, Purdue University Calumet
6
Z Table (critical Z values)
Significance
Level
Zcv
One-Tail Test
Zcv
Two-Tail Test
0.10
1.285
1.645
0.05
1.645
1.960
0.01
2.326
2.576
Pat Obi, Purdue University Calumet
7
Rules Governing the...

...all, the video did a fair job buttressing my understanding of hypothesistesting. The textbook explained the aspects and steps of hypothesistesting in a legible fashion, while the video helped demonstrate a real-life application.
I learned from the text that hypothesistesting is a “Procedure for deciding whether the outcome of a study (results from a sample) supports a particular theory or practical innovation (which is thought to apply to a population)” (Aron A., Aron, E., and Coups, 2011, p. 145). I also learned that hypothesistesting follows a set procedure that appears as follows:
Step 1) Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations
- Basically, a researcher constructs a hypothesis. Then he/she forms a null hypothesis that opposes the research hypothesis in
polar fashion. To help support one’s research hypothesis, one has to disprove the null hypothesis.
Step 2) Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution
- When using two or more samples, one must gather information about the distribution of means.
Step 3) Determine the cutoff sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null...

...OneSampleHypothesis Test
Jeremey Yoppini, Mayela Castillo, Kristopher Olstad, Areli Mejia, Heather Smith
RES342
December 21, 2011
Thomas Allen
OneSampleHypothesis Test
Earning potential and income of every person is severely different; many factors have a hand in determining the amount of money a person makes and how much his or her earning potential can increase. Some of the factors currently determining the earning potential of people around the United States are; education, marital status, age, union participation, race, age, years of experience, sex, the industry in which the individual works, and the position held by individual. This paper is going to show the correlation between marital status and income, the team has disregarded all other determinants to answer the research question clearly. The research question that the team has developed and the hypothesis was formed from goes as follows; does marital status affect earning potential?
Every decade that passes, it seems as though people are waiting longer to get married. Waiting for job security, completion of college and social norms are just a few factors that influence this trend. This is a big change from 50 years ago, when most people would get married straight out of high school. The fact is being single has some advantages when deciding to start a career, it also affects ones earning...

...HypothesisTesting: Two-Sample Case for the Mean
Many cases in the social sciences involve a hypothesis about the difference between two groups (i.e. men and women, control and experiment). We analyze statistics from two samples, and the hypothesis and confidence interval would deal with the difference between two population means. The following factors are important in hypothesistesting:
1. probability theory
2. the sampling distribution of the statistic
3. the errors inherent in hypothesistesting and estimation
4. the level of significance and the level of confidence
5. the directional nature of the alternative hypothesis
General Procedure
1. State the hypotheses.
2. Set the criterion for rejecting H0.
3. Compute the test statistic.
4. Construct the confidence interval.
5. Interpret the results.
Hypothesis of Differences
• There is no difference between mean of group 1 and the mean of group 2.
• [pic] or [pic]
o to test this difference, we determine the difference between the statistic (the difference between the means), and the hypothesized value for the parameter (0).
o if the population variance is known, the sampling distribution of differences is normally distributed.
o if the...

...Nonparametric HypothesisTesting Paper
ABC’s real estate agency has recently expanded its business and is in the process of conducting research on housing prices within 10 miles of its new office. Team B has been given the task by ABC real estate to conduct the needed research. The team will be able to answer at the end of the research if the prices in Santa Cruz, California, are less than the prices of house in Scott’s Valley, California. Throughout this research process the team will formulate the hypothesis statement, perform a five-step hypothesis test, discuss which nonparametric test was needed, and discuss the results from this data research compare to past research completed.
Five-Step Hypothesis Test
The five-step hypothesis test will determine if consumers have a greater satisfaction when the consumer(s) pay more for the home.
Step one is to state the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis:
Ho: µ1 = µ2 No difference in satisfaction
Ho: µ1≠ µ2 Satisfaction differs for the two groups
Step two evaluates if the assumptions have been met through the Mann-Whitney test selection that will compare the two populations and will assume equal variances with a 95% confidence level, the significance level is .05. The decision rule is to reject Ho if z>1.645.
Step three the ranks are summed and calculated using the Wilcoxon –...