One country, two systems
"One country, two systems" is an idea originally proposed by Deng Xiaoping, then Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s. He suggested that there would be only one China, but areas such as Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan could have their own capitalist economic and political systems, while the rest of China uses the "socialist" system. However, Deng rejected the proposed use of such a system for territories that are already under de facto PRC rule, such as Tibet. In the following research paper, the topic will be discussed in two different perspectives, both Hong Kong and Macau. Hong Kong
Hong Kong's stability and continued development as an international city since reunification in July 1997 have depended upon the successful implementation of the principle of 'One Country, Two Systems'. This framework ensures that Hong Kong retains its distinct identity and strengths as an international business, financial, shipping and aviation centre. The 'four pillars' of Hong Kong's success remain as relevant and important today as they did five, 10 or 15 years ago. These are: the common law system upheld by an independent judiciary; the free and unfettered flow of information; a level playing field for business; and, a clean, respected civil service. The Basic Law, Hong Kong's constitutional document, has provided the constitutional basis upon which the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has continued to protect its capitalist system, as well as the way of life, the rights and freedoms of its residents. These include: equality before the law, private ownership of property, freedom of assembly, freedom of movement, freedom of religious belief, freedom of academic research and freedom to join trade unions. The courts continue to administer justice independently, while Hong Kong's own police, immigration, customs and excise and anti-corruption officers have remained responsible for maintaining law and order in the SAR. Hong Kong continues to maintain its previous economic system. It has maintained its renowned, business-friendly, low-tax system and its own currency, which has been linked to the US Dollar at a rate of US$1 to HK$7.80 since October 1983. Mainland leaders have scrupulously adhered to a 'hands off' approach, allowing Hong Kong people to administer their own affairs (except defense and foreign affairs) with the promised high degree of autonomy. As always, Hong Kong people have been quick to speak up if they have perceived that their rights and freedoms, or the systems underpinning Hong Kong society, are in any way being compromised or undermined. Hong Kong people have taken very seriously their role in shaping the SAR and the society in which they live. This has resulted in greater demands from the public and the legislature for an open, accountable and more efficient government. Hong Kong has continued to play an important role in international affairs. It remains an active member, in its own right using the name 'Hong Kong, China', of the World Trade Organization, the World Customs Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) forum and the Asian Development Bank and as an associate member of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) of the United Nations. Hong Kong's presidency of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) on Money Laundering in 2001-02 allowed the SAR to take a leading role in the international fight against terrorist financing in the wake of the September 11 terrorists attacks in the United States. At an Extraordinary Plenary Meeting, chaired by Hong Kong in Washington D.C. in late October 2001, the FATF's remit was expanded beyond money laundering to focus expertise on a world-wide effort to combat terrorist financing. A wide range of special recommendations adopted at the meeting will deny terrorists and their supporters’ access to the international financial system....
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