红河学院学报 Jouna l ofH onghe University
Vo.l 4 No 6 . Dec 2006 .
The D esire for H um an ity in The Ca ll of the Wild
LIU F u- qin
( Fore ign Language D epart en,t H onghe university M engzi 661100, China) m , Abstr ac t The Ca ll of theW ild is one of the masterpieces of Jack London. The hero Buck is a dog This artic le a i s at an ex2 : , , . m p lorattion of the desire for hum an ity in the novel through Buck. s return ing to the w ild It analyzes the wr iting background Buck. s a ttitude . , and behavior towards its m asters and the way the m asters treat Buck It points out that the bad natural environment is like the Cap ita list . Soc iety and these m aste rs are like the cap ita list It is ind icated that Buck. s return ing to the w ild is caused by the greed and indifference . of the m asters if theywere k ind to Buck, Buck wou ld have stayed with people Buck. exper ience rem inds people to be kind to each oth2 , . er . . K ey word s The Ca ll of the Wild; naturalism; desire hum anity : ; : I10914 : A : 1008- 9128( 2006) 06- 0035- 05
I An in troduction to the w r iting background
/ Jack London was an American novelis, short sto2 t ry writer essayis, journa lis, au tob iographer and , t t , [ 1 ] 253 dra tis. 0 ma t H e was also a popu lar natura lis. H e t was born in 1876 and d ied in 1916 The Ca ll of theW ild . is his most famous and w id ely read nove. It was pub2 l lished in 1903 A t that ti e th e industry developed . m, quick ly and naturalism came to America Both of them . affected h is writ ing deeply Before discussing the desire . for human ity in The Ca ll of th e W ild, it is necessary to kno so w me in for at ion about the writ ing background m . Th e h istor ica l background Betw een th e end of the Civil W ar ( 1861- 1865) and th e beginn in g of the F irst W orld W ar ( 1914 1918), the country was wholly transformed Before . 1865 Am erica was a rura l and agricu ltura l country , . M ost of the people believed in God A fter 1865 w ith . , th e North triu mph over the agraria n South th e United , S tates became the most heavily industr ia lized nation in th e world and most of th e peop le ceased to labour on , th e farms and moved to towns and cities towork in facto2 ries By the ti e the U nited States entered W orldW ar I . m as a world power / It was an in dustria lized, urbanized , , contin ental nation whose peop le had been forced to , co e ter s w ith the i p lication of D arw in . s theory o: m m m f evolu tion as we ll as w ith profound changes in o soc ia l wn *
in st itutions and cu ltural values .
[ 2 ] 229
The nature of labour changed w ith the appearance of in dustria lism More than half of the labour needed in . manufactur ing had been replaced by machines Sk illed . handcraftsmen became old - fash ioned unable to co , m2 pete w ith mach in es operated by sem isk illed labourers . A s a resul, trad itional relat ionships bet een employers t w and craftsmen changed, and beca e more i persona.l m m Besid es, thousands and thousands of men wo en and , m ch ildren nat ive born and foreign flocked to American , c ities draw by hopes for steady factory work and high , factory pay A s industry flourished in this ha lf century . , America. s cities grew A great number of labourers . were e loyed by corporat ions and large enterprises mp . In the cities there are fu ll of th e poor the ignoran, , t and the unsk illed. In the countryside in creasin g num2 bers of farmers dependent for transportation of th e ir , crops on the monopolistic railroads were squeezed off , th e land by what novelist F rank Norris character ized as th e gia nt / octopus0 that crisscrossed the contin en. t Every where in dependent far erswere placed / under the m lion. s paw0 of land speculators and absentee land lords . For many the great c ities were also as the polit ica lly , , and critically rad ica l nove list Upton S in cla ir sensed , Jungles where only th e...