Every employee may have experienced some kinds of on-the-job training (OJT) in their careers. An employee probably learns 80 to 90 percent of his/her job knowledge and skills through OJT (Carnevale and Gainer, 1989).
On-the-job training has a general reputation of its effectiveness for vocational work. Its expediency is a major reason for a company to adopt it. However, many companies may only notice its benefits, like few costs and can be implemented quickly, but neglect its limitations.
In this report, the definition of on-the-job training will first be discussed, and then followed by its practice and advantages. Last but not least are the limitations of OJT, and we will evaluate these into three categories: limitations for employees, employers and company which/who participating in on-the-job training.
2. On-The-Job Training
On-the-job training (OJT) is an informal training method which permits an employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them, thus to place trainees in occupations. This can enhance trainees’ prospects for long-term employment and also permit them to become self-sufficient. Normally, this type of training is to transfer knowledge from a skilled and experienced worker to a new-hire; in other words, someone who knows how to do a task shows another how to perform it. Trainees are learnt through training in an actual work setting, to the processes, work tasks, tools and methods of a specific job or group of jobs. So, it is especially appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to an employee’s job, which are relatively easy to learn and require working with equipments or facilities. In practicing on the job training, one trainer usually will assign one to few trainees, depending on the jobs’ characteristic. Because of the reasons that on-the-job training method is planned, organized, and conducted as to enhance employees’ skills and productivities, it is viewed as one the best training methods by many organizations. And to practice a successful on-the-job training, it is highly recommend to adopt one-to-one coaching or limit the number of trainees assigned; also, company should plan the training programmes carefully and relatively.
4. Advantages of on-the-job training
4.1 Save cost
OJT is a cost effective method for a company to use for training their employees. Training is delivered by existing colleagues so the company saves the money for employing instructors or the expenses for external training. Employees are not away from their work place during training and they are actually working while learning. Therefore, company can save the cost for lost workdays.
4.2 Standardization of work practices
OJT make sure every employee is trained in the same way to perform the jobs or tasks. It provides a basis for high work standards in working areas. Thus, same standard can be applied to all employees. (Jacobs & Jones, 1995) It also allows new employees to be integrated into the company more easily and quickly by avoiding unsuitable skills for their specific roles. They can learn standard skills approved by the employer.
4.3 Real taste in the working environment
Employees are actually working as they are learning under OJT. They are trained in their own working environment where they can use the equipments which they have to use for their specific duties. This can reduce employees’ fears and anxieties about learning a new task with familiar equipments and people. The opportunities to practice in real working environment can increase employees’ confidence. Employees become more productive as they are more familiar with their job duties.
4.4 Increase communication between employees and departments OJT provides an opportunity for employees to communicate with staff they seldom talk to. Discussion will be increased among employees about the best way of performing a task. OJT also enhances the transfer of specific job information between...