On Climate

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“Places around the equator and those at latitude 60N are dominated by low pressure belts. Yet the weather and heat transfer processes in the two regions are very different. The weather in the equatorial region is often unchanging while that along latitude 60’N is variable.” Briefly describe the formation of low pressure belts in the two regions. Explain the different weather patterns in the two regions with reference to atmospheric circulation and movement of air masses. Discuss the heat transfer processes which take place in the atmosphere in the two regions. Illustrate your answer with examples from the two regions.

The two low pressure belts found at the equator and at 60N are called equatorial low pressure belt and the temperate low pressure zone. Though both are low pressure systems, their weather and heat transfer processes are very different. Their diversion can be viewed under The equatorial zones are distinguished by a hot and wet climate all year round, yet the temperate zones are typified by less stable areas.

The temperature difference between the equator and the poles generates a circulation system which redistributes heat from low latitudes to high latitudes. The rising and sinking of air at different parts of the earth formed by these circulation cells form low-pressure zones and high-pressure zones respectively. Low pressure develops when air rises. A major zone of low pressure exists at the equator, where the sunlight heats the Earth’s surface and air in contact with it, causing it to rise, thus forming this low pressure region. The temperate low pressure belt, on the other hand, is formed by collision with cold polar air. The descending air in the subtropical belt travels towards the higher latitudes, delivering warm air masses to the temperate regions. Here they collide with cold polar air and the warm air is forced to rise, developing a zone of low pressure. The temperate low-pressure zone is therefore cyclonic in nature which effectively...
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