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  • Topic: Macbeth, William Shakespeare, Writing
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notes;
Macbeth
Was he to blame for the death of Duncan?
Full Title: The Tragedy of Macbeth
Genre: Tragic drama
Setting: Scotland and, briefly, England during the eleventh century Climax: Macbeth’s murder of Duncan
Protagonist: Macbeth
When Written: 1606
Where Written: England
When Published: 1623
Literary Period: The Renaissance (1500-1660)
Related Literary Works: Shakespeare’s source for Macbeth was Raphael Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland, though in writing Macbeth Shakespeare changed numerous details for dramatic and thematic reasons, and even for political reasons (see Related Historical Events). For instance, in Holinshed’s version, Duncan was a weak and ineffectual King, and Banquo actually helped Macbeth commit the murder. Shakespeare’s changes to the story emphasize Macbeth’s fall from nobility to man ruled by ambition and destroyed by guilt. Related Historical Events: When Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, King James of Scotland became King of England. James almost immediately gave his patronage to Shakespeare’s company, making them the King’s Men. In many ways, Macbeth can be seen as a show of gratitude from Shakespeare to his new King and benefactor. For instance, King James actually traced his ancestry back to the real-life Banquo. Shakespeare’s transformation of the Banquo in Holinshed’s Chronicles who helped murder Duncan to the noble man in Macbeth who refused to help kill Duncan is therefore a kind of compliment given to King James’ ancestor. Extra Credit

Shakespeare or Not? There are some who believe Shakespeare wasn’t educated enough to write the plays attributed to him. The most common anti-Shakespeare theory is that Edward de Vere, the Earl of Oxford, wrote the plays and used Shakespeare as a front man because aristocrats were not supposed to write plays. Yet the evidence supporting Shakespeare’s authorship far outweighs any evidence against. So until further notice, Shakespeare is still the most influential...
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