* Common rock minerals. These are the building blocks of rocks and precious stones. * Clay layer structures. Clay is one of the most important minerals for mankind. * Igneous rocks. Molten rock comes from deep in the earth and transforms into various rock types. * Classification of igneous rocks. One type smoothly grades into the next; intrusive and extrusive rock. * The processes inside a magma chamber. Inside gigantic cauldrons, many kinds of rock are formed. * Mineral formation from solid solution, describes part of the process in a magma chamber. * Sedimentary rocks. Erosion by water and wind, transport and sort soil components. * Particle sizes: definitions for names of particles from boulder to silt. * Sediment composition triangle: defining sedimental rock type from sand, clay and carbonate content. * Metamorphic rocks. Under pressure and heat, sedimentary rock transforms into new forms. Soils of the world. Soils are the most variable of minerals, but there are some general classes. * Classification of soils: their names, structures and properties * Carbon fluxes and pools in terrestrial ecosystems, compares productivity and carbon pools. * Properties of soil: texture, structure, moisture, etc.
* Soil degradation: a systematic classification of the many ways soil is lost. * Soil timescales: time scales in the history of soils
Rock and soil chemistry.
* Properties of soil: soil components, texture, structure, pore space, moisture, pH, CEC and more. * Soil degradation: a comprehensive summary of the many ways soil degrades and is lost in both quantity and quality * Soil time scales: tectonic movement, profile formation, soil formation, and more. * Rock and soil chemistry: Bowen series, solid solution, cation exchange capacity and more.
Rocks are all around us. They make up the backbones of hills and mountains and the foundations of plains and valleys. Beneath the soil you walk on and the deep layers of soft mud that cover the ocean basins is a basement of hard rock. What are rocks made of?
Rocks are made up mostly of crystals of different kinds of minerals, or broken pieces of crystals, or broken pieces of rocks. Some rocks are made of the shells of once-living animals, or of compressed pieces of plants. We can learn something about the way a rock formed from by looking carefully at the evidence preserved inside. What a rock is made of, the shapes of the grains or crystals within the rock, and how the grains or crystals fit together all provide valuable clues to help us unlock the rock’s history hidden within. Where do rocks come from?
Rocks are divided into three basic types, igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic , depending upon how they were formed. Plate tectonics provides an explanation for how rocks are recycled from igneous to sedimentary to metamorphic and back to igneous again. Igneous rocks
Igneous rocks (from the Greek word for fire) form from when hot, molten rock (magma) crystallizes and solidifies. The melt originates deep within the Earth near active plate boundaries or hot spots, then rises toward the surface. Igneous rocks are divided into two groups, intrusive or extrusive, depending upon where the molten rock solidifies. Extrusive igneous rock
Extrusive , or volcanic, igneous rock is produced when magma exits and cools outside of, or very near the Earth’s surface. These are the rocks that form at erupting volcanoes and oozing fissures. The magma, called lava when molten rock erupts on the surface, cools and solidifies almost instantly when it is exposed to the relatively cool temperature of the atmosphere. Quick cooling means that mineral crystals don't have much time to grow, so these rocks have a very fine-grained or even glassy texture. Hot gas bubbles are often trapped in the quenched lava, forming a bubbly, vesicular...