Health advantages are claimed for a number of specific oils such as omega-3 oils, evening primrose oil, olive oil, and coconut oil. Trans fats, often produced by hydrogenating vegetable oils, are known to be harmful to health. Hair
Oil is used on hair to give it a lustrous look. It helps to avoid tangles and roughness to the hair. It also helps the hair to be stabilized and grow faster. See Hair conditioner. Anointing one's head with oil is a ritualistic practice in many countries. Fuel
Almost all oils burn in aerosol form generating heat, which can be used directly, or converted into other forms of fuels by various means. The oil that is pumped from the ground is then shipped via oil tanker to an oil refinery. There, it is converted from crude oil to diesel fuel (petrodiesel), ethane (and other short-chain alkanes), fuel oils (heaviest of commercial fuels, used in ships/furnaces), gasoline (petrol), jet fuel, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas. Electricity generation
Oil and any of its more refined products have been used to create electricity. This can be done by means of a steam engine, or by means of a turbine driven by exhaust gases. A steam engine turns the thermal energy into rotary motion, which can then be transformed into electricity, by means of a generator. In an exhaust gas turbine, the combustion products from burning the fuel expand, thereby turning a turbine. The turbine is coupled to an electrical generator. Lubrication
Due to their non-polarity, oils do not easily adhere to other substances. This makes oils useful as lubricants for various engineering purposes. Mineral oils are more suitable than biological oils, which degrade rapidly in most environmental conditions. Painting
Color pigments can be easily suspended in oil, making it suitable as a supporting medium for paints. The slow drying process and miscibility of oil facilitates a realistic style. This method has been used since the 15th century. Petrochemicals
Crude oil can be processed into petroleum; "petrochemicals" are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum or other hydrocarbon origin. They are used in products such as detergents, fertilizers, medicines, paints, plastics, synthetic fibres, and synthetic rubber.
Petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineries. According to crude oil composition and demand, refineries can produce different shares of petroleum products. Largest share of oil products is used as energy carriers: various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Since petroleum often contains a couple of percent sulfur, large quantities of sulfur are also often produced as a petroleum product. Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke may also be produced as petroleum products. The hydrogen produced is often used as an intermediate product for other oil refinery processes such as hydrogen catalytic cracking (hydrocracking) and hydrodesulfurization. Major products of oil refineries
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)
Petrochemicals (see discussion at end of next section)
Specialty end products
A breakdown of the products made from a typical barrel of US oil. Oil refineries will blend various feedstocks, mix appropriate additives, provide short term storage, and prepare for bulk loading to trucks, barges, product ships, and railcars. •
Gaseous fuels such as propane, stored and shipped in liquid form under pressure in specialized railcars to distributors. •
Liquid fuels blending (producing automotive and aviation grades of gasoline, kerosene, various aviation turbine fuels, and diesel fuels, adding dyes, detergents, antiknock additives, oxygenates, and anti-fungal compounds as...
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