Offset Triangular Mesh Using the Multiple Normal Vectors of a Vertex Su-Jin Kim1, Dong-Yoon Lee2 and Min-Yang Yang3
1

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, sujinkim@kaist.ac.kr 2 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, yunny@kaist.ac.kr 3 Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, myyang@kaist.ac.kr

ABSTRACT This paper introduces and illustrates the results of a new method for offsetting triangular mesh by moving all vertices along the multiple normal vectors of a vertex. The multiple normal vectors of a vertex are set the same as the normal vectors of the faces surrounding the vertex, while the two vectors with the smallest difference are joined repeatedly until the difference is smaller than allowance. Offsetting with the multiple normal vectors of a vertex does not create a gap or overlap at the smooth edges, thereby making the mesh size uniform and the computation time short. In addition, this offsetting method is accurate at the sharp edges because the vertices are moved to the normal directions of faces and joined by the blend surface. The method is also useful for rapid prototyping and tool path generation if the triangular mesh is tessellated part of the solid models with curved surfaces and sharp edges. The suggested method and previous methods are implemented on a PC using C++ and illustrated using an OpenGL library. Keywords: Offset, Triangular mesh, Multiple normal vectors

1. INTRODUCTION Offsets are widely used in tool path generation for numerical control machining, rapid prototyping, hollow or shelled model generation, and access space representations in robotics. In a numerical control machining area, 2D and 3D offsets are particularly important and useful for gouge-free and collision-free tool paths [1,2]. In 2D milling, a contour is offset by the size of the cutter radius, and invalid loops are removed for a gouge-free tool path [1]. In 3D milling, a gouge can be removed by computing the cutter...

...taxis away from the terminal until the flight takes off for these 100 flights. a) Distribution is skewed-right with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 0.8 minutes. b) Distribution is skewed-right with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 8 minutes. c) Distribution is approximately normal with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 0.8 minutes. d) Distribution is approximately normal with mean = 10 minutes and standard error = 8 minutes. ANSWER: c 2. Suppose the ages of students in Statistics 101 follow a skewed-right distribution with a mean of 23 years and a standard deviation of 3 years. If we randomly sampled 100 students, which of the following statements about the sampling distribution of the sample mean age is incorrect? a) The mean of the sampling distribution is equal to 23 years. b) The standard deviation of the sampling distribution is equal to 3 years. c) The shape of the sampling distribution is approximately normal. d) The standard error of the sampling distribution is equal to 0.3 years. ANSWER: b 3. Why is the Central Limit Theorem so important to the study of sampling distributions? a) It allows us to disregard the size of the sample selected when the population is not normal. b) It allows us to disregard the shape of the sampling distribution when the size of the population is large. c) It allows us to disregard the size of the population we are sampling from. d) It allows us to disregard the...

...a plasmid or bacteriophage, is called the vector. Ideal vectors have high rates of replication. Gene cloning is an important procedure in genetic engineering that allows us to produce a large amount of a useful gene product: for instance, insulin can be made for diabetic individuals by cloning genes from pancreatic cells.(Wikipedia 15/11/2014)
Cloning vector:
A cloning vector is a small piece of DNA, taken from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism, that can be stably maintained in an organism, and into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted for cloning purposes.( Genome Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-10-18.)
The vector therefore contains features that allow for the convenient insertion or removal of DNA fragment in or out of the vector. There are many types of cloning vectors, but the most commonly used ones are genetically engineered plasmids. Cloning is generally first performed using Escherichia coli, and cloning vectors in E. coli include plasmids, bacteriophages (such as phage λ), cosmids, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Some DNA however cannot be stably maintained in E. coli, for example very large DNA fragment, and other organisms such as yeast may be used. Cloning vectors in yeast include yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs).
Plasmid is an autonomously replicating circular extra-chromosomal DNA....

...illiterate in my life. One way that I think has had the biggest impact in my life was not having the “normal” family that most kids seem to have growing up. I never had the family where the mom bakes all the time and takes her kids to soccer practice and drives a mini van, while the dad doesn’t come home until later at night just to help his kids with their homework and tells them goodnight while him and his wife talk about their day apart. Instead, I was the girl that had the parents that always fought about my mother’s drinking problem and how she was single-handedly ruining our family while my father owned his own business and did not come home until late at night just to find my mother had left me home alone to go the bar. After that, I was that girl that had the divorced parents. Not only did I have the divorced parents, but also I was that girl that was the odd one out that lived with her father and not her mother. I was so embarrassed about my family life because I thought that I was literally the only person that had that family situation, I never thought that anyone else could have the same family problems as me, or that it was more common than what I had thought.
After a couple years of living with my dad and rarely seeing my mom because of the things that she had done, I became that girl with the stepmother and new family that on the outside looked like the “normal” family that I had always wanted. For a while it was everything...

...3r21. ABCD is a rectangle and O is the midpoint of [AB].
Express each of the following vectors in terms of and
(a)
(b)
(c)
(Total 4 marks)
2. The vectors , are unit vectors along the x-axis and y-axis respectively.
The vectors = – + and = 3 + 5 are given.
(a) Find + 2 in terms of and .
A vector has the same direction as + 2 , and has a magnitude of 26.
(b) Find in terms of and .
(Total 4 marks)
3. The circle shown has centre O and radius 6. is the vector , is the vector and is the vector .
(a) Verify that A, B and C lie on the circle.
(3)
(b) Find the vector .
(2)
(c) Using an appropriate scalar product, or otherwise, find the cosine of angle .
(3)
(d) Find the area of triangle ABC, giving your answer in the form a , where a ∈ .
(4)
(Total 12 marks)
4. The quadrilateral OABC has vertices with coordinates O(0, 0), A(5, 1), B(10, 5) and C(2, 7).
(a) Find the vectors and .
(b) Find the angle between the diagonals of the quadrilateral OABC.
(Total 4 marks)
5. Find a vector equation of the line passing through (–1, 4) and (3, –1). Give your answer in the form r = p + td, where t ∈ R
(Total 4 marks)
6. In this question, the vector km represents a displacement due east, and the vector km...

...Calculus in 3D Geometry, Vectors, and Multivariate Calculus Zbigniew H. Nitecki
Tufts University
August 19, 2012
ii
This work is subject to copyright. It may be copied for non-commercial purposes.
Preface
The present volume is a sequel to my earlier book, Calculus Deconstructed: A Second Course in First-Year Calculus, published by the Mathematical Association in 2009. I have used versions of this pair of books for severel years in the Honors Calculus course at Tufts, a two-semester “boot camp” intended for mathematically inclined freshmen who have been exposed to calculus in high school. The ﬁrst semester of this course, using the earlier book, covers single-variable calculus, while the second semester, using the present text, covers multivariate calculus. However, the present book is designed to be able to stand alone as a text in multivariate calculus. The treatment here continues the basic stance of its predecessor, combining hands-on drill in techniques of calculation with rigorous mathematical arguments. However, there are some diﬀerences in emphasis. On one hand, the present text assumes a higher level of mathematical sophistication on the part of the reader: there is no explicit guidance in the rhetorical practices of mathematicians, and the theorem-proof format is followed a little more brusquely than before. On the other hand, the material being developed here is unfamiliar territory, for the intended...

...the completion of the project.
NAME: PARTH KHANDURI
NAME:SHEFALI JAIN
ROLL NO: 10102171
ROLL NO: 10102216
CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
1.2 Motivation
1.3 Outline
CHAPTER 2: COLOR SPACE
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Color Image Models
2.2.1 RGB Model
2.2.2 rgb Model
CHAPTER 3: COLOR SIMILARITY MEASURE
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Euclidean Distance
3.3 RGB
CHAPTER 4: COLOR IMAGE EDGE DETECTION
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Edge detection
4.3 Edge detection in color image
4.4 Techniques used
CHAPTER 5: DIFFERENTIAL OPERATORS
5.1 Sobel operator
5.2 Formulation
5.3 Thresholding and linking
CHAPTER 6: VECTOR ORDER STATISTIC OPERATOR
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Edge detectors
6.2.1 Vector range edge detector
6.2.2 Minimum vector range edge detector
6.2.3 Vector dispersion edge detector
6.2.4 Minimum vector dispersion edge detector
CHAPTER 7: PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
7.1 Input image
7.2 On applying sobel operator
7.3 On applying VR edge detector
7.4 On applying MVR edge detector
7.5 On applying VD edge detector
7.6 On applying MVD edge detector
CHAPTER 8: RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
8.1 Results
8.2 Conclusion
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
APPENDIX F
REFRENCES
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
When humans are asked to describe a picture, they generally give a list of objects within the
picture as well as their...

...MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS USING DUMMY VARIABLE
HDI Regression Using Health, Education &Income
3/21/2012
Department Of Business Economics
Jasmine Kaur(598)
Kshama (577)
Maanya Kaushik
ShikhaChaurasia(600)
ABSTRACT
In this project we have employed tools of empirical econometric analysis to examine the relationship between the Human Development Index and the indicators of Human Development.
Table of contents
Topics | Page no: |
1.Abstract | (i) |
2. Literature Review | |
3. Theory 3.1 Data 3.2 Dummy Variable 3.3 Regression3.4 Interpretation | |
4. Hypothesis testing | |
LITERATURE REVIEW
Human development plays a fundamental role and remains the most important factor in Economic growth and development in countries of the world. The Human Development Index (HDI), first introduced in the 1990 Human Development Report (UNDP: 1990), was in response to the need for a measure that could better represent human achievements in several basic capabilities. This a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of “human development” and to separate countries into developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdevelopment (low development) categories. The statistic is computed using data on Life Expectancy, Education and Per Capita GDP, each as an indicator of Standard of Living. Human Development is...

...is competing as well with the airlines as the land transports
price
Price is the value placed on what is exchanged during the marketing process. The customer exchanges his/her money or donation in return for a satisfaction or utility (S. Dibb and L. Simkin 2001).
Easyjet has always had a one-way ticketing policy. The airline has only one price in the market for any one flight at any one time. The lowest fare is offered into the market first and then prices rise as the departure draws closer and the seats are sold. This ticketing philosophy is transparent to consumers. There is a “value for money” offering, which is easily understood by consumers. By offering only one price in the market, the consumer is confident that “shopping around” using other channels or making greater ticketing restrictions will not reap the reward of lower fares. As the airline educates their consumers that the cheapest fares are sold first, consumers checking prices are more likely to purchase straightaway as they will have confidence that lower prices are not likely to appear later. The airline only sells tickets on a one-way basis and therefore if a passenger wants a return ticket they must buy two one-way tickets. The advantage of this for passengers is that they can book short stay trips without having to pay flexible return ticket prices. For business travellers the availability of flexible tickets is usually considered important. If a business meeting runs over the traveller...

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