Compare and contrast 2 or more explanations of any 1 anxiety disorder (30 marks)
The anxiety disorder I shall explain is known as Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As the name suggests, obsessive compulsive disorder is characterised by obsessions and compulsions. There are two explanations for this disorder; psychological and biological. The biological explanation of OCD focuses on genetics .i.e. role of certain chemical imbalances and family increasing likelihood of developing OCD. Family studies have shown that people with a first-degree relative with OCD have a five times greater risk than the normal population of developing the disorder. In a meta-analysis of twin studies, Billett et al found that compared to non identical twins, identical twins are twice as likely to develop OCD if their twin also had OCD. However the biological model fails to recognise the importance of learning and developing disorders. This is ideology is discussed in the behavioural explanation of anxiety disorders. For example if an infant sees one of his parents committing compulsive acts they are likely to see this behaviour has ordinary therefore likely to develop the OCD disorder. The biological explanation fails to account this method of “learning” of OCD.
The biological explanation suggests that OCD is a result of abnormal brain structure. There is evidence of abnormal brain structure and activity in participants with OCD. This abnormality appears to lie in the pathway linking the frontal cortex and basal ganglia. PET scans of patients with active symptoms of OCD show heightened activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) which gives rise to obessional thinking and compulsive behaviour. This behaviour could also be result of injury or degeneration of neural tissues in the caudate nuclei, an area in the basal ganglia that filters messages from the OFC. This research is supported by research findings that show that low levels of serotonin may be a cause or... [continues]
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