Title:| Occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey | Author(s): Source:Published by:| Orhan KaraJournal of Economic Studies Vol. 33 No. 2, 2006 pp. 130-143Emerald Group of Publishing Limited www.emeraldinsight.com/0144-3585.htm| | |
Keywords:| Pay differentials, Discrimination, Gender, Turkey| Article type:| Research paper|
Abstract:| Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate gender based wage differences by schooling and occupations and to estimate the occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey where strenuous attempts are underway to modernize and negotiate its culturally (Islamic)-based gender differences.Design/methodology/approach – This study employs an extension of Blinder and Oaxaca’s approach to measure the effect of wage discrimination. In order to correct a possible sample selection problem, Heckman’s two step procedure is used to estimate the earning equations for males and females by using Turkish Household Expenditure and Income Survey.Findings – Among the paper’s central findings is that gender wage gap decreases with education, is less in the public sector, and varies across occupations. The overall discriminatory wage gap is estimated at 30 percent after controlling for education, experience, occupation, region, and selection effects.Research limitations/implications – Limitations of this study are mostly related to the nature of the data set used in the analysis. Future research should be replicated on time series data with more variables if they are available. Practical implications – Policy makers should promote education of women since education reduces inequalities among genders as revealed from the decreasing gap of wage differentials for higher levels of education. They should implement measures aimed at reducing inequalities in women’s pay and improving women’s status in the labor market in line with the European Union policies.Originality/value – By using micro data, this study estimates the gender wage discrimination at occupational levels in Turkey by correcting the possible sample selection bias in the analysis, usually omitted in other studies.|
Occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey
The article “Occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey” written by Orhan Kara. The article was published by: Emerald Publishing Limited in 2006. Source: journal of Economic Studies Vol. 33 No. 2, 2006 pp. 130-143. The article is based on describing the occupational gender wage discriminations in Turkey, plus giving some references on different countries showing that in many places women are paid less than men when salaries are considered on the workplace. Investigate gender based wage differences by schooling and occupations and to estimate the occupational gender wage discrimination in Turkey where strenuous attempts are underway to modernize and negotiate its culturally (Islamic)-based gender differences
The author has done an extensive research and explained many aspects of the scenario and from different angles with facts and figures. This problem has arisen at many different countries where women are being treated inferior to the men. Why should capable women face this type of situation? The author reports “Blau and Kahn (2003) reported an average gender gap of 0.14 in Slovenia and 0.85 in Japan in addition to a larger gaps in the US, Switzerland, Britain, and Russia while smaller gaps in countries such as Bulgaria, Sweden, Ireland, and New Zealand.”
Turkey being an Islamic state should not inure this type of misshape, the article reveals that this wage discrimination doesn’t occur to a higher scale in Turkey as in many countries. The general discrimination is about 30% but in occupational groups it varies from 15 to 43 %. This gender discrimination drops down when employees are more educated. The author says “In terms of type of employment, the public sector is...