Testing the Underlying Motives of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Field Study of Agricultural Co-Op Workers John E. Barbuto, Jr. Lance L. Brown Myra S. Wilhite Daniel W. Wheeler University of Nebraska-Lincoln Abstract This study tests the relationship between sources of motivation and organizational citizenship behaviors. One hundred seventy-five employees from 31 locations of two agriculturally based companies completed the motivation sources inventory (Barbuto & Scholl, 1998) and were rated by their supervisors for demonstrated organizational citizenship behaviors (Organ, 1997; Smith, Organ & Near, 1983). Results showed significant relationships between instrumental, self-concept external, and self-concept internal motivation and organizational citizenship behaviors. Implications of these findings for research and practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed. Introduction Research of organizational citizenship behaviors has been extensive since its introduction close to twenty years ago (Bateman & Organ, 1983). The vast majority of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) research since has focused on the effects of OCBs on individual and organizational performance. There is consensus in the field that organizational citizenship behaviors are salient behaviors for organizational enterprises. However, the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors are not well established. Organ (1997) called for a greater attention in research foci on the predictors of OCBs, noting that employee motives may offer an empirical explanation of the phenomena. At the time, there were no strong measures of employees’ sources of motivation. Barbuto and Scholl (1998; 1999) developed an instrument to measure employees’ work motivation and used it to predict leaders’ behaviors. Subsequent work also has demonstrated the strong predictive value of the Motivation Sources Inventory (Barbuto, Fritz, & Marx, 2000). This study seeks to explore the relationships between employees’ sources of motivation and their organizational citizenship behaviors. Antecedents of OCB Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) was introduced by Smith, Organ and Near, (1983), which defined OCB as discretionary individual behavior, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, which, in the aggregate, promotes the effective functioning of the organization. This concept is similar to Katz and Kahn’s (1978) description of extra-role behaviors and Barbuto’s (2000) influence resistance zone behaviors.
28th Annual National Agricultural Education Research Conference, December 12, 2001 – Page 539
Smith, et al. (1983) and Bateman and Organ (1983) conducted the first research on the antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior, finding job satisfaction to be the best predictor. After 17 years of research, job satisfaction is still the leading predictor of OCB (Organ & Ryan, 1995). This is problematic because, descriptively, job satisfaction is in and of itself a challenging outcome sought by organizational managers. The resulting implications are restricted to suffice that OCB is likely when workers are satisfied. There are just as many questions regarding the antecedents of job satisfaction as there are questions about the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors. Many scholars believe job satisfaction is too broad a construct for the accurate prediction of OCB (Deluga, 1994; 1995; Penner, Midili & Kegelmeyer, 1997). The search for other reliable predictors of organizational citizenship behaviors has been increasing during the past ten years, during which time researchers have used, with varying degrees of predictive merit: personality (Organ, 1990; Organ, 1994; Organ & Lingl, 1995; Penner, et al., 1997), procedural justice (Moorman, 1993; Aquino, 1995; Skarlicki & Latham, 1996; Farh, Earley, & Lin, 1997; Schappe, 1998), leadership characteristics (Deluga, 1994; 1995; Podsakoff, Mackenzie, & Bommer, 1996),...
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