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Management Science Letters
Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior: A case study of higher education institutes in Pakistan
Nazia Bashir, Amber Sardar, Khalid Zaman*, Aamir Khan Swati and Shazia Fakhr
Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan
Article history: Received August 6, 2011 Received in Revised form August, 7, 2011 Accepted 8 August 2011 Available online 12 August 2011 Keywords: Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) Altruism Conscientiousness Civic virtue Education sector Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Pakistan
ABSTRACT This study empirically examines the relationship between altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue, three of the antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior, in higher education institutes in the Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa Province (KPK) of Pakistan. The study is based on primary data collected from ninety-five employees of various institutes in Pakistan. The data is analyzed using the techniques of rank correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis. All the findings are tested at 0.01 and 0.05 levels of significance. The result concludes that altruism, conscientiousness, and civic virtue have strong positive impacts on the organizational citizenship behavior in the context of higher education institutes in Pakistan.
© 2012 Growing Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is relatively a new and emerging concept considered under organizational behavior. Major research, in this emerging field of study has taken place in the 1990s and continuing at an established speed. After the introduction of initial concepts of OCB (Bateman & Organ, 1983), numerous studies followed by relating OCB with different dimensions of organizational performance. A great majority of existing studies about the relationship between OCB and performance are theoretical rather than empirical (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). Most of these suggest that OCB is positive for organizations and benefits both management and subordinates. Managers value OCB because it creates a work environment conducive for cooperation. It saves the amount of time a manager spends on an issue and helps in focusing on several other opportunities for improving the organizational performances (Turnipseed & Rassuli, 2005). However, empirical studies do not support a consistent relationship between OCB and performance. Jacqueline et al. (2004) conclude that OCB is like an extra-role behavior, which is not officially required by the organization; rather its practice depends solely on the consent of an employee as a consequence of the * Corresponding author. Tel. +92-(0) 334-8982744 E-mail addresses: email@example.com (K. Zaman) © 2012 Growing Science Ltd. All rights reserved. doi: 10.5267/j.msl.2011.08.004
organizational environment provided to that employee. OCB makes an important impact on organization’s effectiveness; by adding to the social framework of the work environment (Todd, 2003). Despite the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), little practical research has tested the basic assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations. The objective of this study is to find out the relationship between antecedents and OCB in higher education institutes of Khyber Pakhtonkhuwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. More specific objectives are to find out: • • • The effect of altruism on organizational citizenship behaviour, The effect of conscientiousness on organizational citizenship behaviour and The effect of civic virtue on organizational citizenship behaviour.
Based on the above objectives, the present study seeks to test the following hypothesis: H1: H2: H3: There...