Observing Mitosis and Meiosis on Cell Specimens

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Observing Mitosis and Meiosis on Cell Specimens

Name: Low Celine

Tables of Content…………………………………………………………………………….ii
List of Illustrations……………………………………………………………………………iii
Synopsis……………………………………………………………………………………….iv 1. Objectives of Experiment…………………………………………………………………1 2. Introduction……………………………………………………………………………….1 3. Theory……………………………………………………………………………………..2 4. Procedures………………………………………………………………………………...3 5.1 Preparation of Onion Root Tip…………………………………………………………3 5.2 Observation of prepared slides: Mitosis in Onion root tip & Whitefish Blastula……...3 5. Results and Calculation…………………………………………………………………….4 6. Discussion…………………………………………………………………………………..7 7. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………….7

8. Recommendations…………………………………………………………………………...8
References……………………………………………………………………………………R-1

List of Illustrations
List of Figures| | Page|
Figure 1.| Interphase of Mitosis| 4|
Figure 2.| Prophase of Mitosis | 4|
Figure 3.| Metaphase of Mitosis| 4|
Figure 4.| Anaphase of Mitosis| 5|
Figure 5.| Telophase of Mitosis| 5|
Figure 6.| Telophase in plant and animal cell| 5|
| | |
Table 1.| Differences between mitosis and meiosis| 6|

Synopsis
The purpose of this report is to observe mitosis and meiosis. There two parts in the procedures where first part is the preparation of the onion root while the second part is the observation of the onion root. The five stages of mitosis and the telophase in plant and animal cells were observed and sketched. The major findings are that we have found anaphase on the prepared slides very clearly while the other phases vaguely at both slides. The major problems are that very little amount of time was allowed for hydrochloric acid to immerse inside the specimen moreover the specimen is probably damaged because a lot of pressure was added to the specimen. It is highly recommended that more time should be allowed for the specimen to immerse in the hydrochloric acid solution. (132) words

1. Objective
The main objective of the experiment is to know a staining procedure to identify mitosis using onion root tip. We are also expected to compare and contrast plant and animal and the stages of mitosis and meiosis.

2. Introduction
Mitosis and Meiosis are the two types of nuclear division. The process of mitosis occurs when chromosomes are separated in the cell nucleus, into two different nuclei after that cytokinesis will occur. The M phase of the cell cycle comprises of mitosis and cytokinesis.

Meiosis contained a diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosomes and it produces four haploid cells containing a copy of each chromosomes. Written by M.J. Farabee, Sexual reproduction occurs only in eukaryotes.

Eukaryotes: Any of the single-celled or multicellular organisms whose cell contains a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus
Cytokinesis: The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane following the division of the nucleus resulting into two cells, each having its own nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.

Homologous Chromosomes: one of a pair of chromosomes
Haploid: The number of chromosomes in a gamete of an organism

3. Theory
Mitosis
According to Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation(2012) , Mitosis has several stages: interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. In the interphase, the DNA has replicated but the condensed structure of chromosome was not formed yet and they remained as loosely coiled chromatin. While in the prophase, DNA molecules shorten and condense rapidly while forming chromosomes. The spindle fibers will attach themselves to the centromeres of the chromosomes and they will align at the equator of spindle in the metaphase. For the anaphase, the spindle fibers will shorten and the centromere will split. The sister chromatids are...
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