Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. There are two types of reproduction, which are; asexual and sexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is creation of offspring whose genes all come from one parent. Sexual reproduction is creation of offspring by fusion of male gametes (sperm) and female gametes (eggs) to form zygotes. Asexual reproduction involves a type of cell division known as mitosis. Mitosis is the scientific term for nuclear cell division, where the nucleus of the cell divides, resulting in two sets of identical chromosomes. Mitosis is accompanied by cytokinesis in which the end result is two completely separate cells called daughter cells. There are four phases of mitosis: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The active sites of cell division in plants are known as meristems and they are convenient source of mitotic cells for observation under the light microscope. In this experiment two different methods had been used. One of the methods that have been used was; Feulgen Reaction, root tips have been fixed and stained using this reaction. This histochemical method is specific for DNA which is stained deep red-purple. Aim:
Investigate the stages of mitosis under light microscope.
Method 1: Preparation of Root Squash and Observation of Mitosis in Garlic Root Meristems Firstly, one root tip was taken from a container by using a pipette. This root tip was putted on a slide and a drop of 80% glycerol was added, than a coverslip applied. After coverslip was applied, slide was covered with a sheet of blotting paper and squashed gently. Lastly this sample was observed under light microscope both with low power and high power objective. Method 2: Observation of Mitosis in Allium SP. Root Meristems Slides of Allium sp. Root tip squashes was prepared and provided. These ready slides were observed under light microscope both low and high power objectives and stages...