What are the objectives of business?
Every business enterprise has certain objectives which regulate and generate its activities. Objectives are needed in every area where performance and results directly affect survival and prosperity of a business. Various objectives of business may be classified into four broad categories as follows: 1. Economic Objectives:
Business is basically an economic activity. Therefore, its primary objectives are economic in nature. The main economic objectives of business are as follows: (i) Earning profits:
A business enterprise is established for earning some income. It is the hope of earning profits that inspires people to start business. Profit is essential for the survival of every business unit. Just as a person cannot live without food, a business firm cannot survive without profit. Profits enable a businessman to stay in business by maintaining intact the wealth producing capacity of its resources. Profit is also necessary for the expansion and growth of business. Profits ensure continuous flow of capital for the modernization and extension of business operations in future. Profit also serves as the barometer of stability, efficiency and progress of a business enterprise. (ii) Creating customers:
Profits are not created by God or by the force of nature. They arise from the businessman's efforts to satisfy the needs and wants of customers. A businessman can earn profits only when there are enough customers to buy and pay for his goods and services. In the words of Drucker, "There is only one valid definition of business purpose; to create a customer. The customer is the foundation of business and keeps it in existence. It is to supply the customer that society entrusts wealth-producing resources to a business enterprise." No business can succeed without providing customers value for their money. Business exists to satisfy the wants, tastes and preferences of customers. In order to earn profit, business must supply better, quality goods and services at reasonable prices. Therefore, creation and satisfaction of customers is an important economic objective of business. Business creates customers through advertising and salesmanship. It satisfies the needs of customers by producing the required goods and services and by creating utilities. (iii) Innovations:
Business is an organ of dynamism and change. In these days of competition a business can be successful only when it creates new designs, better machines, improved techniques, new varieties, etc. Modern science and technology have created a great scope for innovation in the business world. Innovation is not confined to the invention of a new machine. It comprises all efforts made in perfecting the product, minimising the costs and maximizing benefits to customers. It involves improvements in management, production, selling servicing, methods of personnel and accounting, etc. Business firms invest money, time and efforts in Research and Development (R&D) to introduce innovations. They develop new technology, introduce new designs and new tools and processes to minimise costs and to satisfy ever increasing wants of customers. In order to create customers business has to explore new markets and attract more customers. It has also to retain old customers by providing better services to them. 2. Social objectives
Business does not exist in a vacuum. It is a part of society. It cannot survive and grow without the support of society. Business must therefore discharge social responsibilities in addition to earning profits. According to Henry Ford, "the primary aim of business should be service and subsidiary aim should be earning of profit." The socials objectives of business are as follows: (i) Supplying desired goods at reasonable prices:
Business is expected to supply the goods and services required by the society. Goods and services should be of good quality and these should be supplied at reasonable prices. It is also the...
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