In this unit we have considered the functions associated with a typical R&D department operating in the microelectronic sector, produced a typical job description for a design engineer and mentioned some management issues. Typical R&D functions that we have described are:- • Development of New Products- usually the primary function of R&D • Product Maintenance- probably the most important secondary function of R&D- short term income is important • Product Enhancement - helps keep the company products ahead of the competition and extends the life of products • Regulatory Compliance- a legal requirement- products sold in the European Community must carry the CE mark • The Quality R&D Interface- quality is a major issue and R&D are heavily involved in ensuring new products attain the required levels of quality • The R&D structure we have outlined is typical of an SME- job descriptions help to define the structure of a department effectively.
Operations management focuses on carefully managing the processes to produce and distribute products and services. Usually, small businesses don't talk about "operations management", but they carry out the activities that management schools typically associate with the phrase "operations management." Major, overall activities often include product creation, development, production and distribution. (These activities are also associated with Product and Service Management. However product management is usually in regard to one or more closely related product -- that is, a product line. Operations management is in regard to all operations within the organization.) Related activities include managing purchases, inventory control, quality control, storage, logistics and evaluations. A great deal of focus is on efficiency and effectiveness of processes. Therefore, operations management often includes substantial measurement and analysis of internal processes. Ultimately, the nature of how operations management is carried out in an organization depends very much on the nature of products or services in the organization, for example, retail, manufacturing, wholesale, etc.
Procurement (Purchasing) Practices
This topic reviews guidelines for buying various materials from suppliers and vendors -- materials, including computers, services from lawyers, insurance, etc. Procurement (Purchasing) Practices
Management Control and Coordinating Function
Management control and coordination includes a broad range of activities to ensure that organizational goals are consistently being met in an effective and efficient fashion. Control Function of Management (includes major activities to ensure goals are being met)
Product and Service Management
As noted above, the major activities involved in product and service management are similar to those in operations management. However, operations management is focused on the operations of the entire organization, rather than managing a product or service.
Product/Service Mgmt (product creation, development, production and distribution and sales)
Quality management is crucial to effective operations management, particularly continuous improvement. More recent advancements in quality, such as benchmarking and Total Quality Management, have resulted in advancements to operationsmanagementaswell.
Costs can be substantial to store and move inventory. Innovative methods, such as Just-in-Time inventory control, can save costs and move products and services to customers more quickly.
Basics About Inventory Control and Management
Buying and Inventory System
Getting Back on Track, including inventory control
Models for Inventory Control Association for Operations Management
Supply Chain Management
ABCs of Supply Chain Management
Institute for Supply Chain Management
Supply Chain Management
General Resources About...