شرح الحوافز وانواعها وسبب اختيار 3 رؤية المدرسة وعلاقتها بالحوافز
كيفية تحقيق الحوافز
2.1 Objective career success
According to Dries, Pepermans, and Carlier (2008) objective career success „[…] is mostly concerned with observable, measurable and verifiable attainments such as pay, promotion and occupational status‟ (p. 254). Compared to subjective, i.e. perceptual and evaluative criteria they are neutral and not biased in their empirical assessment (Dette, Abele and Renner, 2004). The most widely found measurements in the literature are: monthly salary before taxes, hierarchical status (e.g., Abele and Spurk, 2009b), and salary progression (Wayne et al., 1999).
2.2 Subjective career success
Compared to objective career success subjective career success is much broader and refers to all aspects relevant concerning one‟s individual career satisfaction (Greenhaus, Parasuraman and Wormley, 1990). The most common distinction – introduced by Heslin (2003) – is self-referent versus other-referent assessment. I.e. dependent on the comparison standard, i.e. self versus others, subjective success can be conceptualized as self-referent subjective success or as other-referent subjective success (Abele and Wiese, 2008; Dette, Abele and Renner, 2004; Heslin, 2003; Heslin, 2005). Self-referent is usually measured as career satisfaction or job satisfaction (e.g. Boudreau, Boswell and Judge, 2001; Bozionelos, 2004; Erdogan, Kraimer and Liden, 2004; Heslin, 2003; Judge et al., 1995, Ng et al., 2005; Seibert and Kraimer, 2001).
18.104.22.168 Achievement of personal goals
According to Seibert and Kraimer (2001) definition subjective career success refers to an individual‟s subjective evaluation of the present achievements compared to his personal goals and expectations. Thus, career satisfaction measures the extent to which individuals believe their career progress is consistent with their own goals, values and preferences (Erdogan, Kraimer and...