Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse affect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy. Child obesity has been increasing dramatically and it has become one of the most common chronic conditions for youngsters and it's accompanied by several psychological effects. As for the children it might lead to being isolated and having peer problems and sense of discrimination from non obese children. Moreover, studies show that the percentage of obese children differs from country to another; as in the united states it has been estimated that the percentage of obese children and teenagers is between 20 and 27%, while in France its between 2 and 13% and in turkey its between 10 and 15% (Erermis, Cetin, Tamar, Bukusoglu, Akdenis, Goksen, 2004), and in Australia one of four children is obese (Gibson, Byrne, Blair, Davis, Jacoby, & Zubrik, 2008). The main purpose of this literature review is to examine the relationship between the degree of obesity in children and their self esteem where the self esteem is the stable sense of personal worth or worthiness, with a research question of what is the effect of obesity on the children's self esteem?
Articles were located by means of the EPNET database. Academic Search Complete was selected and the keywords used were obesity*, self esteem*, and children*, by using the delimiters: Full text, Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals and with a year limit from 2004 to 2008, which produced 31 results. From the 31 articles 10 articles were excluded as they were secondary sources: (Flodmark, 2005; O'Dea, Jennifer, 2004; Health psychology review, 2007; Bahtiyar, Gul, Jean-Louis, Girardin, Nessim, & Fiby, 2007; Freidman, Godfrey, & Francine, 2007; Lagerberg, & Dagmar, 2005; obesity in childhood, 2005; Segal, Sanker, Reed, & Dannielle, 2004; Practice Nurse, 2008; Ortega, Ruize, Castillo, & Sjostrom, 2008). 13 articles were primary sources but were excluded because they were irrelevant and not answering the research question: Nowicka, Pietrobelli, Angelo, Flodmark, & Carl-Erik (2007) studied the influence of low intensity solution- focused family therapy with obese pediatric subjects on body mass index BMI z-scores and self esteem. Edwards, Nicholls, Croker, Van Ayl, Viner, & Wardle (2006) assessed the impact and accessibility of family-based behavioral treatment for children's obesity. Janson, Smeets, Tom, Boon, Nederkoorn, & Roefs (2007) tested if obese children show interpretation biases related to body weight and self esteem. PWC, Lee, Ransdell, Yu, & Sung (2004) investigated whether the difference the ideal and actual body size rating is related to Chinese children global self esteem and global physical self concept. Sacher, Chadwick, Wells, Williams, Cole, & Lawson (2005) evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of childhood obesity treatment programme. Stern, Marilyn, Mazzeo, Porter, Jerilym, Gerke, Clarice, & Bryan (2006) investigated the overweight African American girls. Jackson, Mannix, Faga, Mcdonald, & Glenda (2005) investigated the strategies the mothers of overweight children used to help them lose weight. Jimenez-Cruz, Bacardi-Gascon, Castellon-Zaragoza, Garcia-Gallardo, & Hovell (2007) evaluated the range of perceptions of Mexican parents and teachers of the ideal body size of adults and children. Widhalm, Dietrich, & Prager (2004) tested the psychology of children who have gone through surgeries or therapeutic regimens to lose weight. Holt, Bewick, & Gately (2005) studied the children's opinion in attending a weight loss camp. Whetstone, Lauren, Morrissey, & Doyle (2007) examined the relationship between the children's body image and weight and the suicidal thoughts that they might have. Viner, & Cole (2006) studied whether exercises, eating behaviors, and psychological factors in obesity prevention programmes predict a change in BMI in...