ob rewiew

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Evolution of Public Administration
Politics–administrative dichotomy
Reflects the notion that “politics’ is about deciding what government should do, and “administration” is about how to do it Public Administration in Canada: Pre-Confederation
Patronage
What is this?
Does it still exist today?
Adoption of Weberian (Max Weber) principles of bureaucracy following Confederation: Hiring based on merit, not friendship
Formal written rules of conduct
Professionalism
Public Administration in the Keynesian State (1945-1970s)
John Maynard Keynes, British economist
Large measure of state intervention in the economy and the use of deficit financing to prime the pump when the economy is in downturn Commitment to full employment; construction of the social safety net (welfare, unemployment insurance, pensions, family allowance, Medicare) Started in the 1940s

“Prime the Pump” to stimulate economic growth
See 2008 in Canada and the US
Accompanied by growing demand for public social services, and in turn, the growth of the public sector; emergence of a large, sophisticated, well-trained public service at the federal level Transformation of public service in the 1960s and 1970s

Public Administration in the Neo-conservative State
Limited role for government
Public service downsizing, budget cuts
“New Public Management” (NPM)
Government doing “too much rowing, not enough steering” Pioneered by Margaret Thatcher (UK), Ronald Reagan (US) and Brian Mulroney/Jean Chrétien (CDN) Motivated by large debt and more economical ways of doing things: A rise in public distrust of politicians and bureaucrats

Globalization
Result: a roll-back of the state (focus on privatization, deregulation, contracting out of public services, decentralization, downsizing, expenditure reduction initiatives, user fees) “WHY DON’T THEY RUN GOVERNMENT MORE LIKE THEY RUN A BUSINESS?” Public Sector

priority is the “public good”
accountable to all citizens
benefits all citizens
pursuing “public good” may be inefficient; e.g., equality, national unity shorter timeline
Private Sector
priority is profit
accountable to shareholders
benefits those who pay
economic efficiency;
i.e., maximize profit, minimize expense
longer planning horizon
Canada’s Public Service Today (24% of population)
Theory of representativeness
Our goal is to be a diverse workforce that is representative, at all job levels, of the citizens we serve.  The Government of Nova Scotia has an Employment Equity Policy and we welcome applications from Aboriginal People, African Nova Scotians and Other Racially Visible Persons, Persons with Disabilities and Women in occupations or positions where they are under-represented.  If you are a member of one of the equity groups, you are encouraged to self-identify, on your application form, cover letter, or on your resume. (source: NS Government Job Advertisement) Right to collective bargaining in 1967:

Impact on government action
Public interest
The Art of Governance: Making Public Policy
Defining Public Policy
Simply, what a government chooses to do, or NOT do
Think Big Picture
Requires leadership, integrity, vision
Measured in government action, rather than statement
Discussion, formulation, implementation, evaluation
WHAT INFLUENCES PUBLIC POLICY FORMULATION?
Classical Technocratic
Politicians direct bureaucrats
More democratic
Bureaucratic Entrepreneur
Bureaucrats recommend to politicians
More efficient
Interest and Pressure Groups
Interest Groups:
Covers a wide variety of people and organizations concerned with influencing the actions and policies of government Pressure Groups:
Exist for the express purpose of monitoring and influencing government policy How the actions of government affect the issue with which they are concerned Lobbyist:
“political persuasion for hire”
Federal and provincial registries
Policy Implementation
Policy in action; i.e., once a decision is made, how should it be carried out?...
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