Ob Main Points

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Ch 14 Main Points
1. Forces for change
-Nature of the workforce
-Technology
-Economic shocks
-Competition
-Social trends
-World politics
2. Change Agents
3. Lewin’s Three-Step Model
-unfreezing
-moving
-refreezing
-Status quo---equilibrium state
-driving forces/restraining forces
4. Kotter’s Eight-Step Plan
5. Action Research
-diagnosis
-analysis
-feedback
-action
-evaluation
-problem-focused and solution-centered/involves employees in the process, resistance to change is reduced 6. Appreciative inquiry
-accentuates the positive
-discovery---finding out the “best of what is”
-dreaming---envision the organization in five years
-design---“finding a common vision”
-destiny---writing of the action plans and implementation strategies 7. Resistance to change
-is positive---source of functional conflicts/a degree of stability and pre-dictability to behavior 8. individual resistance
-self-interest
-misunderstanding and lack of trust---don’t trust those who initiating the change -different assessments---managers often assume employees have same information than they do, often not the case -low tolerance for change---worried of being asked to do too much, too quickly 9. cynicism

-feeling uninformed of what’s happening/lack of communication,respect/can’t be involved 10.organizational resistance
-Structural inertia—built-in mechanisms
-limited focus of change—subsystems be nullified by the larger system -group inertia
-threat to expertise
-threat to established power relationship
-threat to established resource allocation
11.Overcoming Resistance to Change—not all changes are good -education and communication—selling the need for change/fight misinformation -participation and involvement—hard to resist when being involved -building support and commitment—fear, anxiety are high

-implementing changes fairly—fairness important when perceived negative -manipulation and co-optation—distortion, buy off, key role of decision process -selecting people who accept the change
-explicit and implicit coercion
12. Politics of change
-demand for change from new entrants/ managers slightly removed from main power structure -first-order change—incremental
-second-order change—radical
13.Innovation—new idea improving a product/process/services 14.Source of innovation
-organic structures positively influence innovation
-long tenure in management is associated with innovation
-innovation is nurtured when there are slack resources
-interunit communication is high in innovative organization
---innovative organizations tend to have similar cultures/ reward both successes and failures 15.idea champion—individuals actively support a new idea
-same personalities—high confidence/energy, tendency to take risks/ transformational leadership/ good at gaining support 16.Learning organization
-developed the continuous capacity to adapt and change
-single-loop learning
-double-loop learning
17.Managing Learning
-Establish a strategy
-Redesign the organization’s culture
-Reshape the organization’s culture—risk-taking/openness/growth/encourage functional conflicts 18.Culture-bound
-do people believe change is possible
-how long will it to take to bring it about
-resistance to change different in different cultures
-culture influence how change efforts will be implemented
-successful idea champions do things differently in different cultures

Ch 13 Main Points
1. Organizational Culture
-how jobs are formally divided, grouped and coordinated
-Pyramidal Organizational Structure—talk to managers, managers talk to their managers/different from the original information -Flat Organizational Structure—talk to top management easily -something intermediate between pyramidal and flat

2. Restructuring
-organizations do change their structures from time to time
3. Six elements designing the organization
-Work Specialization—can be efficient/ not always the best way/ higher productivity, reduced satisfaction,...
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