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Essay 1
Compare and contrast TWO theories of motivation. Suggest how managers might use these theories to motivate their staff.

According to Fincham and Rhodes (2005), Maslow believed that motivation was mostly an unconscious process. Human beings tend not to be aware of what motivate them and would find it hard to describe motivation by answering questions, for instance.

As Kelly (1982) said, Herzberg was more interested in motivation than satisfaction. He argued that what determined motivation fell into two classes, those that are extrinsic to the individual including pay, supervision and company policy. He went on by saying that these could reduce dissatisfaction. The second class of determinants of motivation was those that are intrinsic to the individual, including feelings of responsibilities, recognition which promoted satisfaction. He went on by adding that the second class of determinants were associated with effective job performance and were highly motivating.

According to Fincham and Rhodes (2005), both Herzberg’s and Maslow’s motivation theory are part of the content theories. These are based on the assumption that a similar set of needs can be attributed to all individuals. Though, they differ in their accounts of what these needs are.

Fincham and Rhodes (2005) said that Maslow’s hierarchy included the physiological, security, social, self-esteem and self-actualization needs. Therefore the hierarchy is based on five different set of needs. Kelly (1982, p.40) stated that, Herzberg believed that “man has two basic set of needs - his animal needs, which relate to the environment, and his distinctive human needs, which relate to the tasks with which he is uniquely involved”. Therefore, unlike Maslow, Herzberg believed there was two set of needs.

As Fincham and Rhodes (2005) stated, Maslow came up with the concept of a hierarchy of needs. Like Maslow, Herzberg adopted a form of hierarchy theory to underpin the hygiene-motivator...
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