Unit 540 Lead positive behavioural support
Positive behaviour support (PBS) is an approach to providing services to individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. Since the early 1990s, PBS has received increasing attention from the behaviour-analytic community. Some behaviour analysts have embraced this approach, but others have voiced questions and concerns. Over the past dozen years, an approach to delivery of behavioral services known as positive behavior support has emerged as a highly visible movement. Although PBS has been substantially influenced by applied behavior analysis, other factors are also part of its history. Anderson and Freeman (2000) recently defined positive behavioural support as a systematic approach to the delivery of clinical and educational services that is rooted in behaviour analysis. However, recent literature varied definitions of PBS as well as discrepant notions regarding the relation between applied behaviour analysis and PBS. After summarizing common definitional characteristics of PBS from the literature, I conclude that PBS is comprised almost exclusively of techniques and values originating in applied behaviour analysis. Positive Behavior Support (Origins & Development)
Positive behavior support (also referred to as positive behavioral interventions and supports) emerged from the controversy surrounding the use of aversive consequences with people with developmental disabilities. An article by Horner et al, began with the statement that “In recent years, a broad-based movement has emerged in support of no aversive behavior management”. He asserted that “No aversive behavior management … has developed … as an alternative to the use of more extreme aversive events” and coined the phrase “positive behavior support” to refer to no aversive behavior-management procedures. They stated that “many people … are being … subjected to dehumanizing interventions that are neither ethical nor beneficial”, citing sources that contained strong statements of opinion but little objective data to support that assertion. The development of a well defined technology of behavioral support will take time. There is too little information available to assert that positive approaches are capable of solving all behavior problems or documenting that one approach is superior to any other. Both well-controlled empirical analyses and less controlled clinical analyses are needed. “From the standpoint of the independent variable, the PBS approach refers to those interventions that involve altering deficient environmental conditions … or deficient behavior repertoires”. “The remediation of deficient contexts also helps to define the PBS approach with respect to dependent variables: (a) increased positive behavior, (b) improved lifestyle, and (c) decreased problem behavior” More recently, he went on to described PBS as “an applied science that uses educational methods to expand an individual's behavior repertoire and systems change methods to redesign an individual's living environment to first enhance the individual's quality of life and, second, to minimize his or her problem behavior” others have stated that “PBS is intended to enhance quality of life and minimize/prevent problem behavior through the rational integration of (a) valued outcomes, (b) behavioral and biomedical science, (c) empirically supported procedures, and (d) systems change”. The Mansell Report (Department of Health 2007, Services for People with Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behavior or Mental Health Needs Revised Edition, Chairman: Prof J L Mansell says… The needs of family carers & staff...
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