Nuture Va Nurture; Psychologist Theories

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Nature v. Nurture 2

"Genes and family may determine the foundation of the house, but time and place determine its form." (Kagan, Jerome). Even though nature and nurture influence human behavior, nature and nurture work together equally in the development of human behavior because both genetics and environmental influences affect the outcome of a person's behavior and/or personality, while neither of the two traits can single-handedly determine one's behavior and/or personality. The question that has been pondered upon for many decades is "which of the two (nature or nurture) are more influential?" To illustrate: In looking for the causes of individual differences in intelligence, a major issue is the relative contribution of genetics and environment.

100% Genetics(Nature)90% Gen.80% Gen.70% Gen.60% Gen.50-5060% Env.70% Env.80% Env.90% Env.100% Environ.(Nurture) Rate the extent to which you believe nature and nature influence (cause) human intelligence. (Ridley, 1999)

There is a question as to how nature and nurture influence behavior. All throughout history psychologists have been trying to figure out which of the two, nature or nurture, influence the development of human behavior and/or personality more and because of this particular question psychologists began to do intensive research. They did this by studying each of the two theories separately. One psychologist, Plato, campaigned nature while the other, Aristotle, campaigned nurture. The studies began with nature. Nature is defined as the heredity or biological make-up that influences the outcome of one's behavior and/or personality. Nature can also be defined as an individual's innate qualities. Some psychologists, like Plato, suggest that humans start out in life with some amount of knowledge. Nature provides us with abilities and traits like eye and hair color, skin color, and intelligence that is determined by certain genes that are embedded in each cell in the human body. Again, many psychologists, like Plato, believe that genetics ultimately take credit for the resulting human behavior. On the other hand nurture is Nature v. Nurture 3

defined as the environmental factors that influence the outcome of one's behavior and/or personality. Nurture can also be defined as one's personal experiences. Some psychologists, such as Aristotle, suggest that humans start out in life without any knowledge, but knowledge is gained through life experiences. These psychologists believe how a child or person is raised strongly influences human behavior. Many psychologists, like Aristotle, believe that human behavior and/or personality is a product of the environment. "While each child is born with his or her own distinct genetic potential for physical, social, emotional and cognitive development, the possibilities for reaching that potential remain tied to early life experiences and the parent-child relationship within the family." (Weissbourd, Bernice; Grimm, Carol). To illustrate so statistics have been provided thanks to a researcher named Ridley (1999): “Concordance rates of IQ scores

·Evidence from family studies provides the main supporting evidence from which

arguments about the relative roles of genetics and environment are constructed.

A large number of the study of twins reared apart was undertaken by Thomas Bouchard of

the University of Minnesota starting in 1979. He “collected” pairs of separated twins from all

over the world and reunited them while testing their personalities and IQs. Other studies at

the same time concentrated on comparing the IQs of adopted people with those of their

adopted parents and their biological parents or their siblings. Put all these studies together,

which include the IQ tests of tens of thousands of individuals,...
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