Physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by proper nutrition. KEY POINTS
Athletes need to eat enough calories during periods of intense or endurance training to maintain body weight and health. Not eating enough can result in loss of muscle mass, bone density, fatigue, injury, and illness; longer recovery time In general, no vitamin and mineral supplements are needed if an athlete is eating a variety of foods to maintain body weight. Vegetarian athletes may be at risk for low intakes of energy, protein, fat, and key micronutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, zinc, and vitamin B12 ENERGY METABOLISM
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate provide the readily available energy present within the muscle. Creatine phosphate is an ATP reserve in muscle that can be converted to sustain 3–5 min of exercise, the primary fuel used for high-intensity, short-duration activities such as the weight lifting Anaerobic glycolytic pathway - uses muscle glycogen and glucose without oxygen. This supports exercise lasting 60–180 sex and is used during a single 30-s sprint Oxidative pathway fuels events lasting longer than 2–3 min, energy come from muscle and liver glycogen, fat and protein. Used in exercise such as 1500- m run, marathon, BODY COMPOSITION
Body composition and body weight are two of the many factors that contribute to optimal exercise performance. Body weight can influence an athlete’s speed, endurance, and power, whereas body composition can affect an athlete’s strength, agility, and appearance. Four studies have shown carbohydrate restriction has been shown to be detrimental, but not protein MACRONUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR EXERCISE
Endurance athletes. –Increase in protein consumption...