Nutrition 200 Exam 1 Review

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Nutrition Test Review
CHAPTER 1
* Scientific Method: Observation Hypothesis Experiment Results Support/Not Support Hypothesis * Sources of Reliable Nutrition Info
* Know who the person is
* .gov, .edu, .org
* Types of Studies:
* Epidemiological Studies – Studies disease/incidence in a population * Cross-Sectional Studies – Observe what people eat
* Case-Control Study – Comparing someone with a disease to someone without it * Cohort – Analyze data collected over time
* Experimental Studies
* Animal Studies
* Lab-Based/In-Vitro Studies – Explore effects of a variable on a tissue, cell, or molecule * Human Intervention Trials – People adapt to new behaviors and are studied * Most Trustworthy Studies

* Real People
* Real World
* Large Studies
* Consistency of the Evidence
* Investigation of disease endpoints
* Classes of Nutrients
* With Calories and Energy
* Carbs
* Proteins
* Fats
* No Calories, No Energy
* Vitamins
* Minerals
* Water
* Minerals + Water = NOT organic (NO Carbon)
* KiloCalories (kcals)
* Same as popular term Calorie
* (1000 Calories = 1kcal)
* kiloCalories (kcal) in Nutrients
* Carbs – 4kcal/g
* Fat – 9kcal/g
* Protein – 4kcal/g
* Alcohol – 7kcal/g
* Dietary Reference Intakes
* Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) – Average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological function in half the healthy people of a given age and gender group * Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) – The average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of practically all healthy people * Adequate Intake (AI) – Average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion * Tolerable Upper Levels (UL) – Maximum daily amount that appears safe for most healthy people

CHAPTER 2

* Nutrient Density = nutrients / calories
* USDA Food Guide – Assigns foods to the 5 major food groups of fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, legumes, and milk * Food Labels
* The Ingredient List
* ALL Ingredients
* Descending order of predominance by weight
* Serving Sizes
* Facilitate comparisons amongst food
* Need to compare to quantity of food actually eaten * Do not match USDA Food Match
* Nutrition Facts
* Listed by quantity and percentage standards per serving * Called the Daily Values
* Vitamins A, C, Iron, and Calcium are listed in % DV only * Daily Values (DV)
* Based on a 2000 calorie diet
* Health Claims
* Represent clear links between a nutrient and a disease * Nutrient Claims
* Must meet FDA definitions and have NO implied claims

CHAPTER 3

* Digestive Tract Key Organs
* Mouth
* Mechanical and Chemical (Saliva) – Carbs
* Esophagus
* Mechanical – Food Lump is called a Bollus
* Peristalsis – Squeezing of a tube of tooth paste * Cardiac Sphincter – Gate to control speed of food in gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and prevents acid reflux * Stomach – Mechanical & Chemical

* Churning
* Chyme – Semi-liquid mass of food
* Pyloric Sphincter – Controls food release into small intestine * Chemical
* Denatures Proteins – antimicrobial
* Proteins broken into smaller peptides (peptidase = enzyme that breaks up protein) * Mucus – Protects walls of stomache from gastric juices * Small Intestine
* Three Parts (total up to 10 ft long)
* Dvodenum – First 12 Fingers
* Sejunum – Next 40% of Sm. Int.
* Ileum – Rest of the SI
*...
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