Nursing Theory in Practice

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Nursing Theory In Practice
Chamberlain College of Nursing
NR 501: Theoretical Basis of Advance Practice
September 25, 2011

Introduction
Imogene King was the developer of both a Conceptual Framework and a Goal Attainment theory. The Goal Attainment theory is a middle-range theory that originated from the Conceptual System. The primary concepts of Goal Attainment theory are perception, communication, interaction, self role, grow and development, stress, and time and space (Frey, Sieloff & Norris, 2002). The main point of Goal Attainment theory is that the nurse and the patient work together to define and reach goals that they set together (Killeen & King, 2007). This process is done mostly through communication, which is one of the key concepts of Goal Attainment theory. Communication between the nurse and the patient can be verbal or nonverbal and is the vehicle by which human relations are developed and maintained (Williams, 2001). Communication involving the exchange of information between two people provides significant connection to achieving mutual goals. This paper will explores how King’s concept of communication in Goal Attainment theory supplies a fundamental interaction process that facilitates ordered function in the delivery of quality direct patient care. Concept Applied To Nursing Practice

The use of communication concept in nursing is important in providing therapeutic patient care. Hamilton (2007) states “nurses can facilitate successful and therapeutic patient contact through questioning, listening, summarizing, reflecting, paraphrasing, set induction and closure”. Descriptions of how communication concepts are applied in the nursing practice through interaction with the patient, establishing the intention of the interaction, deciding on interventions to be used, assessing the impact of the interventions and evaluating the implication of the subsequent information obtained and then act accordingly (Hamilton, 2007). Communication skills are the fundamentals of any interaction whether personal, professional, or social in order to maximize the likelihood of effective interaction. McEwen and Wills (2011) states that communication is a process by which information is given from one person to another either directly in face-to-face meeting or indirectly” (p. 163). Nurses use communication skills on daily basis to gather information; encourage; facilitate patient expression, harness attitudes, views and opinions; encourage critical thinking; reduce anxiety; facilitate liaison with other disciplines; and promote continuity in patient care (Hamilton, 2007). Good communication is necessary to effective nursing care; therefore, allowing nurses to provide a personal touch and building trust with their patients. Through the concept of communication, nurses are able to reduce the risk of errors that breakdown communication lines and delay attainment of goals. Application Of Communication Into The Nursing Practice

Everyday we are reminded of the different types of communication whether it be through direct face to face, email, telephone, text messaging, video conference, or hand written letter, they all are trying to achieve a mutual goal of processing information between two people. King (1981) encouraged “nurse to be aware of how they present themselves to their patients because the manner in which nurses enter a patient’s room sets the tone for the entire encounter” (p.28). Poor communication skills lead to poor interaction between the nurse and the patient. The use of poor communication can be dangerous. Poor communication can cause healthcare workers to get their wires crossed, therefore, leading to misdiagnosis and even medication errors. The cause of poor or lack of communication skills are many and include time availability of nurses to get time to sit and talk with patients; lack of privacy; shortage of qualified nurses who are available to talk to patients; lack of training; and...
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