Nursing Theorists

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Application of Theory in Nursing Process
Introduction
* Theories are a set of interrelated concepts that give a systematic view of a phenomenon (an observable fact or event) that is explanatory & predictive in nature. * Theories are composed of concepts, definitions, models, propositions & are based on assumptions. * They are derived through two principal methods; deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Objectives

* to assess the patient condition by the various methods explained by the nursing theory * to identify the needs of the patient
* to demonstrate an effective communication and interaction with the patient. * to select a theory for the application according to the need of the patient * to apply the theory to solve the identified problems of the patient * to evaluate the extent to which the process was fruitful. Definition

* Nursing theory is an organized and systematic articulation of a set of statements related to questions in the discipline of nursing. * "A nursing theory is a set of concepts, definitions, relationships, and assumptions or propositions derived from nursing models or from other disciplines and project a purposive, systematic view of phenomena by designing specific inter-relationships among concepts for the purposes of describing, explaining, predicting, and /or prescribing." |

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The goal of nursing is “to put the patient in the best condition for nature to act upon him”. - Nightingale | Introduction * Born - 12 May 1820 * Founder of mordern nursing. * The first nursing theorist. * Also known as "The Lady with the Lamp"  * She explained her environmental theory in her famous book Notes on Nursing: What it is, What it is not . * She was the first to propose nursing required specific education and training. * Her contribution during Crimean war is well-known. * She was a statistician, using bar and pie charts, highlighting key points. * International Nurses Day, May 12 is observed in respect to her contribution to Nursing. * Died - 13 August 1910 Assumpations of Nightingale's Theory * Natural laws * Mankind can achieve perfection * Nursing is a calling * Nursing is an art and a science * Nursing is achieved through environmental alteration * Nursing requires a specific educational base * Nursing is distinct and separate from medicineNightingale’s Canons: Major Concepts 1. Ventilation and warming 2. Light, Noise 3. Cleanliness of rooms/walls 4. Health of houses 5. Bed and bedding 6. Personal cleanliness 7. Variety 8. Chattering hopes and advices 9. Taking food.  What food? 10. Petty management/observationNursing Paradigms * Nightingale's documents contain her philosophical assumptions and beliefs regarding all elements found in the metaparadigm of nursing.  These can be formed into a conceptual model that has great utility in the practice setting and offers a framework for research conceptualization. (Selanders LC, 2010)Nursing * Nursing is different from medicine and the goal of nursing is to place the patient  in the best possible condition for nature to act. * Nursing is the "activities that promote health (as outlined in canons) which occur in any caregiving situation.  They can be done by anyone." Person * People are multidimensional, composed of biological, psychological, social and spiritual components.Health * Health is “not only to be well, but to be able to use well every power we have”. * Disease is considered as dys-ease or the absence of comfort.  Environment * "Poor or difficult environments led to poor health and disease". * "Environment could be altered to improve conditions so that the natural laws would allow healing to occur."Nightingale's Theory and Nursing PracticeApplication of Nightingale's theory in practice: * "Patients are to be put in the best condition for nature to act on them, it is the responsibility of nurses to reduce...
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