“Nursing care theories and models and their application to: 1. Adult health nursing”
2. Community Health nursing”
3. Reproductive Health nursing”
A theory is a set of propositions used to describe , explain predict and control. Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to define or explain various aspects of each profession of nursing. Levels of nursing theories.
* Grand nursing theories.
This type of theory has the broadest scope and present general concept and propositions. Theories at this level may both reflect and provide insight useful for practice but are not designed for empirical testing. This limits the use of grand nursing theories for directing, explaining and predicting nursing in particular situations . * Mid range nursing theories.
Are narrower in scope than grand nursing theories and offer an effective bridge between grand nursing theories and nursing practice. They present concept and positions at a lower level of abstraction and hold great promise for increasing theory-based research and nursing practice strategies. * Nursing practice theories.
Nursing practice theories have the most limited scope and level of abstraction and are developed for use within a specific range of nursing situations. Nursing practice theories provide frameworks for nursing interventions and predict outcomes and the impact of nursing practice.
Types of theories.
i. Descriptive theory : it defines properties and components of a discipline, it sorts out meaning and observations and sets forth what elements exists in the discipline it identifies and describes specific characteristics of particular people, groups, situation or event. ii. Explanatory theory: identifies how the properties and components relate to each other and accounts for how the properties and components related to each other and accounts for how the discipline functions. It describes relationships among various phenomena. iii. Predictive theory: predicts the relationship between the components of a phenomenon and predicts what conditions it will occur but does not provide control. iv. Prescriptive Theory: addresses nursing therapeutics and consequences of interventions. Such theories designate under what conditions something should occur.
Characteristics of nursing theory
* They are interrelating concepts in such a way as to create a different way of looking at a particular phenomenon. * Logical in nature.
* Bases for hypotheses that can be tested.
* Increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them. * Used by the practitioners to guide and improve their practice. * Consistent with other validated theories, laws and principles but will leave open unanswered questions that need to be investigated.
1. ENVIRONMENTAL THEORY
The environmental theory is attributed to Florence Nightingale. The main focus of her theory is the control of the environment of individuals and families both healthy and ill. She discusses the need for ventilation and light in sickroom, proper disposal of sewage and appropriate nutrition. Her ideas about nursing have guided both theoretical thought and actual nursing practice throughout the history of modern nursing. Nightingale considered nursing similar to a religious calling to be answered only by women with an all consuming and passionate response. She considered nursing to be both an art and science and believed that nurses should be formally educated.
Application of environmental theory in:
Adult health nursing
Unnecessary noise is not healthy for recuperating patients. Nightingale advocated for a quite environment in the hospitals.
Petty management proposed the avoidance of psychological harm no upsetting news strictly...