Nursing Theories

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1. Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model of Nursing in 1976 This model comprises the four domain concepts of person, health, environment, and nursing and involves a six step nursing process. Andrews & Roy (1991) state that the person can be a representation of an individual or a group of individuals. Roy's models sees the person as "a biopsychosocial being in constant interaction with a changing environment" (Rambo, 1984). The person is an open, adaptive system who uses coping skills to deal with stressors. Roy sees the environment as "all conditions, circumstances and influences that surround and affect the development and behaviour of the person" (Andrews & Roy, 1991). Roy describes stressors as stimuli and uses the term 'residual stimuli' to describe those stressors whose influence on the person is not clear (Andrews & Roy). Originally, Roy wrote that health and illness are on a continuum with many different states or degrees possible (Rambo, 1984). More recently, she states that health is the process of being and becoming an integrated and whole person (Andrews & Roy). Roy's goal of nursing is "the promotion of adaptation in each of the four modes, thereby contributing to the person's health, quality of life and dying with dignity" (Andrews & Roy). These four modes are physiological, self-concept, role function and interdependence.

2. The Tidal Model[1][2] is a recovery model for the promotion of mental health developed by Professor Phil Barker, Poppy Buchanan-Barker and their colleagues. The Tidal Model focuses on the continuous process of change inherent in all people. It seeks to reveal the meaning of people's experiences, emphasising the importance of their own voice and wisdom through the power of metaphor. It aims to empower people to lead their own recovery rather than being directed by professionals.[3] 3. Hildegard E. Peplau R.N. MAN PhD From the nursing history she was born September 1, 1909 in Reading Pennsylvania. She was considered a Psychiatric Nurse of the Century "mother of psychiatric nursing" from Military Medicine in Health. Peplau is the author of Interpersonal Nursing (1952). She introduced the Nurse-Patient Relationship based on PSYCHODYNAMISM “The Process of the Nurse Patient Interaction” According to this philosophy of nursing, nursing needs to be able to understand one’s own behavior, actions and conduct to help other identifies challenges and difficulties in order to apply values of human relations to the dilemma that occur at all levels of experiences. According to Nursing - These three faculties such as Spirit,Body and Mind contributes to Health and Wellness of a patient.

Role of Psychiatric Nursing

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Role of Psychiatric Nursing The psychiatric nurse is usually one of the first people a patient will see when he is admitted to a mental hospital. He or she will be monitoring most of the patient's plan of care and implementing doctors' orders.

Medical Duties

1. A nurse in a psychiatric setting helps to implement the plan of care, as set forth by the doctor and follows his treatment orders. She'll be helping the patient with everyday care. She will administer medications to the patient as ordered, as needed. As she takes care of the patient, she should be careful to chart every detail of her interactions with and observations of patients, as well as vital medical information, so that the doctor and other staff can make objective decisions concerning that patient's care, having been educated as to his progress, or lack thereof. She will most likely be reporting, in person, on the patient's care to both doctors and other nursing staff, as needed, for the best care possible.

Nursing Care Plan

2. As the nurse cares for each of her patients, she will examine him and institute a...
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