• History can be defined as:
“A study of events from the past leading up to the present time” • The study of history focuses on the chronology of events and their impact throughout time. • The development and evolution of the nursing profession is connected to historical influences throughout the ages, beginning in antiquity.
THE IMPORTANCE OF STUDYING NURSING HISTORY
1. Helping to understand the societal forces and issues facing the profession 2. Gaining an appreciation of the role the profession played in the healthcare system 3. Describing the influence of societal trends on the development of nursing as a profession 4. Identifying the contributions of selected leaders in the nursing profession
Nursing in Antiquity (ancient Times)
General Characteristics of the Period
1. The role of nursing care was assigned to different people such as females because of their caring role as mothers, and to medicine men, shamans and Attars 2. The earliest nurses learned their art through oral traditions passed from generation to generation and through the process of trial and error 3. The first organized groups of nurses were during the early Christian era 4. The nursing role was given to the deaconess which means a servant or helper
Highlights Of Health Care Practices in Antiquity
• Earliest medical records (3000 B.C.)
• 700 classified drugs
• Physicians were skilled in treating fractures, filling teeth and classifying drugs • Midwives practiced obstetrics
• Developed Mosaic Code of organized method of disease prevention. • Talmudic regulations for slaughtering of animals, childbirth and hygiene. • Isolated people with communicable diseases.
• Gentlemen paid surgeons with silver coins for surgery
• Believed illness a punishment for sin and used incantations to purify body • Surgery was more advanced than internal medicine