³The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery or to a peaceful death thus he would perform unaided, if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge and to do this in such a way as to help him to gain independence as rapidly as possible -the concept of nursing according to Virginia Handerson (1958) The essential components of professional nursing practice (according to ANA) include care, cure and coordination. Nursing is based on scientific principles and an art i.e. composed of skills that require expertisedness and proficiency of their execution.
Nursing is a dynamic, therapeutic and educative process in meeting the health needs of the society, assisting the individual or family to achieve their potential for self direction. Education brings change in the behavior of individual in a desirable manner. It aims at all round development of an individual to become mature, self sufficient, intellectually, culturally refined, socially efficient and spiritually advanced. Nursing education has brought changes in the behavior of the student nurse so as to prepare her to play her roles effectively as an individual and as a good responsible citizen.
The practice of educational nursing began in the United States on October 1, 1902 when the initial role of the school nurse was to reduce absenteeism by intervening with students and families regarding health care needs related to communicable diseases. While the nurse¶s role hasexpanded greatly from its original focus, the essence of the practice remains the same. The nurseeducator supports student success by providing health care assessment, intervention, and follow-up for all children within the school setting.
Three phases are included in nursing education:-
Pre- nursing education:- spread information of nursing to the prospective Candidates, publicity and guidance about nursing education, nursing services, working conditions of nurses, career development, job avenues ,opportunities and responsibilities of nurses has to be given. Booklets can be developed like µnursing as a carrier¶, µprofile of a nurse¶. The prospective students can introspect, think and make a right decision. Careful intelligent planning is required to develop personal and professional satisfaction.
Nurse education:- nurse educators have to take care to produce nurses in order to provide qualitative care, select the candidate who is having interest for admission into nursing is the first step. Nurse educators monitor continuously, implement the curriculum which consists of theoretical and practical hours of training in a critical manner, give equal weight age to develop the right attitudes, social and moral values, human relations, skills, ethics, civic sense ,professional etiquette to have perfect background in nursing. Along with the technical skills, the personal qualities of the students also have to be promoted. Evaluation of students performance is essential.
Post nursing education:- after completion of the nursing training, nurse has to register their names in professional organization. The nurse still needs to be educated either in the form of in service or continuing education. The teacher has to develop teaching material and conduct of research to improve the standards of nursing. Post nursing education consists of orientation, supervision, in-service education, evaluation and re-registration. New graduates need to have a well planned and organized orientation to the area of their posting. They must be oriented to the staff, equipment, working conditions and clients with whom they have to work. They need guidance and supervision in achieving professional standards. Nurses on the job must be evaluated periodically, in terms of knowledge and performance and in-service education needs to be planned on the basis of their needs.
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