In nursing there are some Fundamental patterns of knowing that help nurses in making informed decisions when in practice (Estabrooks 2005). Barbara Carper identifies the four basic patters of knowing; empiric as the science of nursing, aesthetic as the art of nursing, personal knowledge and ethics as the moral component (Kingsley 2002).This report will outline the four patterns of knowing and indicate how Melanie should have used them to make an informed decisions while looking after James. This report will show how the four ways of knowing should have helped Melanie to respond to James’s need in an ethical way without having to breach any duty of care that he owed to either James and or the hospital (Kingsley 2002). Nurses have numerous legal, professional and ethical duties (Crisp and Taylor 2008). The three main duties are to respect all patients’ confidentiality and autonomy and to recognize duty of care owed to all parties Johnstone 2004). The report will discuss how Melanie legal responsibilities and if any breach of duty occurred. When a professional duty is breached there is a legal implication (Crisp and Taylor 2008). The nursing professions are bound by own code of ethics which are enforced by disciplinary procedures (Crisp and Taylor 2008). Different document can be used by the nurses to help them comprehend their standard of care. The report will identify the legal responsilities of Melanie and discus legislations, case laws or common law principle that informs understanding of the key legal responsibilities of the nursing student. The report will outline the ethical issues in the case study and discuss how bioethical principles help in the solving this ethical issues in nursing. The report will outline duty of care that Melanie owed to all parties and if they were fulfilled.
Ways knowing in nursing
In nursing there are four fundamental patters of knowing that were identified by Barbra Caper in 1978(Kingsley 2002).These four ways of knowing allow nurses to situate their knowledge development and clinical practice in responding to patient care (Kingsley 2002).This fundamental patterns of nursing are; empiric, the science of nursing, aesthetic, the art of nursing, the component of personal knowledge in nursing and ethics the moral component in nursing (Kingsley 2002).Melanie should have used the following fundamentals ways of knowing to inform his decision (Estabrooks 2005). Empirical:
This is knowledge that arises from what can be seen, what can be measured and tested (Kingsley 2002) .Empirical knowledge should be, factual, objective, that other people can repeat, can be observed and tested (Estabrooks 2005). Empirical knowledge gives an abstract and theoretical explanations (Kingsley 2002).It involves conscious problem solving and logical reasoning (Estabrooks 2005). In this case study this pattern should help used to understand the disease James is suffering from and implications of smoking to her health, this is the objective part of the parttern (Kingsley 2002).Empirical knowledge will help a nurse understand cerebrovascular disease and the left and right side paralysis of James and how this may affect her daily living and needs (Estabrooks 2005). Since empiric knowledge should help the nurses know the kind of behavior that causes patient harm like taking them to the ground floor for a smoke in this case(Kingsley 2002). Melanie needed to have a through understanding of James’s disease (Cerebrovascular) and his left side paralysis in order to make an informed decision of whether to take James out for the cigarette (Estabrooks 2005) .This knowledge would have informed Melanie that James’s condition put him at a high risk of injury or fall if he was taken down for the cigerret.Melanie should have gathered information on why James is not allowed to go down for the cigarette (Estabrooks 2005). Empirical Knowledge should have informed Melanie the reason behind the hospitals no ‘smoking...