HISTORY OF NURSING
1. In 1200 B.C., the ill were treated with a mixture of physical, prayer, and magic spells. Temples were health centers. From the 1st-10th century initial care was at the local bishop’s house. They had deacons and deaconesses. In the 19th century, nurses cared for patients while at the risk of exposure to disease. Nursing in hospitals expanded in the 19th century, but nursing the communities did not increase significantly until 1893 when the Henry Street Settlement opened and focused on the health needs of poor people who lived in tenements in New York City. 2.
3. Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human response; and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations. 4. She saw the role of nursing as having “charge of somebody’s health” based on the knowledge of “how to put the body in such a state to be free of disease or to recover from disease.” She was the first nurse epidemiologist who connected poor sanitation with cholera and dysentery. 5. There were no standards to help control disease. Nursing was not a distinct profession. 6. Florence Nightingale-implemented methods to improve battlefield sanitation, which ultimately reduced illness, infection, and mortality. Clara Barton- 1st woman to gain employment in the federal government and is the founder of the American Red Cross and tended to soldiers on the battlefield, cleansing their wounds, meeting their basic needs and comforting them in death. Dorothea Lynde Dix-School teacher, founded schools, advocate for the mentally ill, formed an army nursing corps, and organized hospitals and ambulatory services. Mary Eliza Mahoney- 1st African-American RN in the USA, concerned with relationships between cultures and races, Cofounder of The National Association of Colored People. Isabel Hampton Robb- founder of modern ANA and American nursing theory, established nursing standards, develop a grading policy, author of nursing textbooks. Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster opened the Henry Street Settlement. 7. Theories are designed to explain a phenomenon such as self-care or caring. A nursing theory is a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing that describes, explains, predicts, or prescribes nursing. It helps to identify the focus, means, and goals of practice. Theories give us perspective for assessing our patients’ situations and organizing data and methods for analyzing and interpreting information. Integration of theory into practice is the basis for professional nursing.
1. Caring, Competence, Collaboration, Critical thinking, Commitment to Holistic care, Integrity, Responsibility, and Accountability. 2. A profession requires a basic liberal foundation and an extended education of its members, it has a theoretical body of knowledge leading to defined skills, abilities, and norms, it provides a specific service, members of a profession have autonomy in decision making and practice, and the profession as a whole has a code of ethics for practice. 3. LPN
Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN)- 2 year program that focuses on the basic sciences and theoretical and clinical courses related to the practice of nursing. Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN)- 4 year programs that focuses on the basic sciences; theoretical and clinical courses; and courses in the social sciences, arts, and humanities to support the nursing theory Master’s Degree- is important for the roles of a nurse educator and nurse administrator, and it is required for an advanced practice registered nurse Doctoral
* Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)- Emphasize more basic research and theory and research-oriented * Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)- practice-focused and provides skills in obtaining expanded knowledge through the formulation and interpretations of evidence-based practice 4. Caregiver- help...
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