THEORY X, Y AND Z IN NURSING ADMINISTRATION
According to Mc Gregor, the traditional manager in a bureaucracy operates on a set of assumptions about human nature and human behaviour, which was called as Theory X. Accordingly, his assumptions are the following: (1) the average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it, if he can, when possible; (2) Because of dislike of a work, most people must be coaxed, controlled, directed, threatened with punishment to get through, put forth adequate effort towards the achievement of organizational objectives; and (3) the average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has rationally little ambition and is more interested in financial increments and wants security above all than personal achievements. Accordingly, “Theory X” assumes human beings as lazy, lacking in ambition, resisting change, non-creative, capable of being deceived easily, etc. (Basavanthappa, BT. 2000. NURSING ADMINISTRATION (pp38-39). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher, New Delhi). Furthermore, based from my own opinion, Theory X is a type of organizational management in which manager considers the human nature and behaviour of his subordinates. Thus, these employees need more supervision and direction or instruction to meet the goals of a company. This theory describes the staffs to be lazy and lack on ambitions in meeting and achieving goals but they only want to acquire benefits without any barriers and responsibilities will be given to them, which greatly affects to the productivity and efficiency in carrying out healthcare needs to the patients, and so there are less productivity in meeting the demands from their clients.
On the other hand, Theory Y provides more accurate assessment of human nature, in which one that encourages workers to develop their full potentials. In addition, assumptions about human nature under this theory are the following: (1) the expenditure of physical and...
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